Covenant of Alaska,
a Free and Independent Nation=State
Article I Territorial Description
Section 1. The geographic bounds
Section 2. General description
Article II Bill of Rights
Unalienable Rights and Common Law Rights
Section 1. Self-defense and defense of others
Section 2. Contract
Section 3. Religion
Section 4. Discrimination and segregation
Section 5. Speech
Section 6. Press
Section 7. Locomotion
Section 8. Private property
Section 9. Right to travel
Section 10. Land rights; allodium
Section 11. Privacy at home and during travel
Section 12. Communication privacy
Section 13. Search and seizure
Section 14. Grand jury indictment
Section 15. Warrants
Section 16. Due process of law
Section 17. Compelled testimony
Section 18. Right to counsel
Section 19. Trial by jury and rights of review
Section 20. Abolition of general civil law
Section 21. Presumption of innocence; no double jeopardy
Section 22. Bail
Section 23. Truth as defense in slander and libel
Section 24. Involuntary servitude
Section 25. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed
Section 26. Excessive bail, fines, punishment
Section 27. Right to assemble and petition
Section 28. Treason
Section 29. Acts void; Standing to challenge
Section 30. Age of majority
Section 31. Political power
Section 32. Power to secure rights
Article III Duties of Office
Section 1. Effect of pledge
Section 2. Money defined
Section 3. Debt prohibited
Section 4. The legislative power defined
Section 5. Restriction on official contracts
Section 6. Prohibition on common, or presumptive, indenture
Section 7. Prohibition on forced medication
Section 8. Prohibition on public health mandates
Section 9. Prohibition on grant of special privileges
Section 10. Prohibition on licensing trades and professions
Section 11. No recognition of war except as lawfully approved by the national House of Delegates
Section 12. Prohibition on declaration of war
Section 13. Prohibition on forced use of private dwellings for military
Section 14. Eminent domain
Section 15. Prohibition on public discrimination
Section 16. Penalty for public officer introducing restrictions on the right to keep and bear
Section 17. Limitation on public
Section 18. Right to alter or abolish
Section 19. Supreme law of the land
Section 20. Limitation on powers
Article IV Form of Government, Extent of Jurisdiction, and Separation of Powers
Section 1. Form of government
Section 2. Limitation on jurisdiction
Section 3. The powers of the petit jury and grand jury
Section 4. Separation of powers
Article V General Qualifications and Disqualifications for Office
Section 1. General qualification for public office
Section 2. Ineligibility to hold public office
Article VI Grand and Petit Juries
Section 1. Grand jury formation
Section 2. Grand jury powers
Section 3. Petit jury; number; place
Section 4. Selection
Section 5. Grand jury members excluded
Section 6. Independence.
Section 7. Function twofold..
Article VII Judicial Branch
Section 1. Supreme
Section 2. Judicial power
Section 3. Justices
Section 4. Supervisory powers
Section 5. County Judges, elections, term
Section 6. Justices of the peace
Section 7. Clerks
Section 8. Private courts
Section 9. Qualifications for office of judge and justice of the peace
Section 10. Restitution
Section 11. Crimes against the public peace, health, and safety
Section 12. Actions to prosecute felonious crimes
Section 13. Requirement; accusation of crime
Section 14. Equitable relief; writ of prohibition; and protection orders
Section 15. Style of process
Article VIII Legislative Branch
Establishment of the Official Assemblies
Section 1. Established Assembly
Section 2. The House of Statesmen
A. Qualifications for office
B. Minimum and maximum number and provisions for change
C. Privilege from arrest
Section 3. The House of Delegates
A. Number of delegates
D. Qualifications for office
E. Privilege from arrest
F. Census, time of taking
G. Election of delegates
Section 4. General rules for both houses
A. Quorum, adjournment, attendance, officers
C. Journals; yeas and nays
D. Right of dissent
E. Conduct and publication of elections
H. Checks and Balances
I. Progression of acts of the Legislature
J. Resolutions proceed as acts; exception
L. Members excluded from appointment to office during term
M. Writs of election for filling vacancies.
N. The legislature shall be part time
O. Style of laws
Article IX Executive Branch
Section 1. Fiduciary duty
Section 2. Chief Trustee and Deputy Trustee; power, term
Section 3. Eligibility
Section 4. Election
Section 5. Returns of elections
Section 6. Chief Trustee; militia
Section 7. Chief Trustee; powers
Section 8. Restriction on office
Section 9. Pardon
Section 10. Appointments to vacancies
Section 11. Powers and duties of Chief Trustee; devolution on Deputy Trustee
Section 12. Devolution on president pro tempore of Statesmen
Section 13. Deputy Trustee ex officio president of the House of Statesmen.
Section 14. Deputy Trustee; filling of vacancy
Section 15. Chief Trustee compensation.
Section 16. Deputy Trustee; compensation
Section 17. Great seal
Section 18. Commissions.
Section 19. Grants and disbursements
Section 20. Duties of the Chief Trustee
Article X The Militia
Section 1. Militia; organization and discipline
Section 2. Discipline of officers
Section 3. Election or appointment of officers
Section 4. Purposes
Article XI Officers of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, and County Officers
Section 1. Secretary of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, term, appointment, duties
Section 2. Treasurer; appointment, term
Section 3. Trust Auditor, Trust Advocate, appointment, term
Section 4. County Prosecutors
Section 5. County officers, election, terms; sheriff's security
Article XII Impeachments and Removals from Office
Section 1. Impeachments
Section 2. Procedure
Section 3. Power of Chief Trustee to remove judges
Section 4. Removal of county and township officers
Article XIII Education
Section 1. Encouragement
Section 2. School Boards
Section 3. Competition Among Schools
Section 4. Transition
Article XIV Highways and Roads
Section 1. New Highways and Highway Maintenance
Section 2. Funding for Highways and Maintenance
Article XV Prohibition of Slavery
Section 1. Slavery prohibited
Section 2. Principle of Dignity
Article XVI Miscellaneous Provisions
Section 1. Official affirmation, form
Section 2. Surety Bond
Section 3. Judge’s declaration
Section 4. Internal improvements, scope
Section 5. Treasury withdrawals; annual statement, publication
Section 6. Marriage / Sacred Union
Section 7. Public records
Section 8. Lotteries / Casinos
Section 9. Organization of counties
Section 10. Location of Covenant offices
Section 11. Seat of government
Section 12. Chief Trustee and Deputy Trustee, term
Section 13. Successor's term
Article XVII Mode of Amending and Revising the Covenant
Section 1. Covenantal amendments; legislative and referendum procedure
A. Legislative. Amendments to this Covenant
B. Initiative and referendum; limitations; appropriations; petitions.
2. Referendum, approval
3. Initiative; duty of Legislature, referendum
4. Legislative rejection of initiated measure; different measure; submission to people
5. Initiative or referendum law; effective date, veto, amendment and repeal
6. Legislative implementation
Section 2. Covenantal convention
Article XVIII Schedule of Peaceful Conversion
Section 1. Equal standing with free nations
Section 2. Convictions to remain in force, statutes void.
Section 3. Fines, penalties and escheats to Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, in trust under Covenant
Section 4. Recognizances valid
Section 5. Election of Trust officers
Section 6. Election System
Section 7. Election Eligibility
Section 8. Election Process
Section 9. Precinct Ballot Tabulation.
Section 10. County Election Officials Duty
Section 11. Election Officials Duty
Section 12. First meeting of the Legislature
Section 13. County and township officers
Section 14. Covenant submission to electors; time, return.
Article XIX Definitions
Covenant of Alaska,
a Free and Independent Nation=State
Brought forth in convention, begun at the village of Wasilla, Alaska, on the fifth day of October, two thousand and nineteen, A.D., this Covenant for a free and independent Nation=State creates a perpetual trust which shall administer public holdings through duty-bound and bonded officers.
The land shall be called: Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State. This expressed trust shall be called: Covenant of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State. All ministerial duties set forth herein, or in the future created hereunder, shall be executed under this Covenant.
We the settlors of the territory known as Alaska, in assembly met, at Wasilla, Alaska on Saturday the fifth day of October in the year of our Lord two thousand and nineteen, the thirty fifth de jure state, the second state post second millennium A.D. having the right of admission into the General Government, as a member of the Union, consistent with the original foundational documents including the Constitution for the united States of America, on an equal footing with the original states in order to establish Justice, promote the welfare, and secure the blessings of freedom to ourselves and our posterity; do ordain and establish the following Covenant-form of Government, and do mutually agree with each other to form ourselves into a free and independent Nation=State, by the name of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State.
All powers possessed by man flow from the Almighty, to create or to destroy. In this, all men are equal, to exercise such powers individually, or through delegation to surrogates, to protect and enjoy life, freedom, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It is for that purpose that men institute forms of political covenant, to express the bounds of surrogate power which may be employed, and to construct a framework to secure both non-particular and particular rights. This covenant is written for those purposes, and more, to instruct a people held in bondage how the mechanisms and devices which have enslaved them operate.
Truth is the author of freedom, so also, without truth, freedom is impossible. To facilitate the acquisition of truth, scripture is given us, and to all people, to instruct us in conduct which might either eventuate in bondage or freedom. And scripture of all stripes is founded upon revelation of the Almighty expressed through common law. In the furtherance of individual liberty in law, common law forbids the bearing of false witness, the debasement of money, the practice of unfixed weights and measures, the practice of usury, and the enforcement of private indentures exceeding seven years.
As such, no political state should enforce any contract, or impose any penalty, arising out of a claim which is based upon a witness to these abominations, penalty for infamy up to indenture for life, excepted.
We, therefore, acknowledge that freedom can be exercised only through the seeking of truth, the intent to live in harmony, and the free expression of life through the enjoyment of both private and public property.
Men and women assemble in common accord to extend their powers by delegation of authority. In so doing, each is not diminished, nor does each surrender any powers to a position of fealty, whether to a living being or to a fictional entity. Man and woman each remain sovereign, and the trust structure created by covenant, along with its titles of possession, which are held by fiduciaries under bond, are in a position of vassalage and fealty to the people.
We recognize two forms of law: common law, and its antithesis, civil law. We reserve to ourselves common law, the form of law offering freedom, as we express our claim to particular rights, and reserve all other rights unexpressed. We also authorize the creation of a bailment specifying certain duties ascribed to fiduciaries in a position of fealty to the people under civil law, who shall administer certain public accounts.
No ruler has ever been the source of a nation’s wealth. Thus, all rulers, by the principles of equity, are fiduciaries of a constructive trust in which the property held by such ruler, or ruling entity, belongs to the people, and not to the ruler, nor to his, her or its oligarchy.
When it is apparent to the people that their fiduciaries have acted outside their position of trust, regardless of compact, or constitutional expression, it is incumbent upon the people to change their form of governance, strip the trustees of their charges, offices, and property, and punish them for both their belligerence and their crimes. This covenant is offered to set right that which was twisted by attorney agents of a foreign power who have acted to impose a form of law which is alien to this land and to a free people.
It is beyond absurd to suppose that the founders of the Constitution for these united States, and by extension, the Constitution of Alaska, intended to bring with them the same form of despotism from which they suffered in Europe, and from which they ventured to seek a new land; and even if they did, it would have worked an intentional fraud upon the inhabitants of this land, who sought freedom rather than vassalage, and would never have given their assent had they known what form of government was actually offered to them, and the inevitable condition of absolute servitude it would eventually produce. We, armed with knowledge, will not make that same mistake.
Let us now correct those mistakes. If there be any thing in this document which does not accomplish freedom for the people, let it be amended by the jurists, and let all the people be jurists if they desire. But, in no wise shall any amendment work to diminish the rights of the people, nor subject them to peonage.
We the people of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, grateful to the Almighty for the organic law and the blessings of liberty, do ordain and establish this Covenant to secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity; to provide for the operation of law; to secure the absolute right of private property; to administer public property for the equal benefit of all; to bind public servants to certain fiduciary duties; to render punishment for breaches of duty; and to organize and establish public courts.
No alliance, contract, compact, covenant, ordinance, law, treaty, rule or agreement shall be made contrary to these Covenant purposes. Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State shall not enter into any relationship, such as a partnership, in which another entity can make an obligation binding upon Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State or its people. Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State has absolute jurisdiction over all corporations and municipalities foreign and domestic, within Alaska’s metes and bounds.
Section 1. The geographic bounds within which public ministers have a duty to administer public property and to operate law under this Covenant shall be described by metes and bounds, and through the use of Global Position Satellite by longitude and latitude, as soon as is practicable, which shall be recorded in the Journal of the House of Statesmen.
Section 2. General description: Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, shall be enriched and secured by the administration of this public trust known as the Covenant of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, which shall have specified ministers who exercise delegated authority as designated herein, within these territorial bounds:
Commencing from the southern-most point of the island called Prince of Wales Island, which point lies in the parallel of 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude, and between the 131st and the 133rd degree of west longitude (meridian of Greenwich) said line shall ascend to the north along the channel called Portland channel, as far as the point of the continent where it strikes the 56th degree of north latitude; from this last mentioned point, the line of demarcation shall follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast as far as the point of intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude and finally from the said point of intersection, sai d meridian line of the 141st degree, in its prolongation as far as the frozen ocean, and from the center of the Earth to the farthest reaches of the galaxy.
With reference to the line of demarcation laid down in the preceding article, it is understood that the island known as Prince of Wales Island belongs wholly to Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State.
Bill of Rights
Preamble: The rights enumerated herein are not exclusive, but illustrative. Attached to each right is the duty not to infringe upon the rights of others, to waive certain of one’s own rights by the degree in which one has infringed upon others, and to assume liability for whatever damages one might impose upon another during the exercise of one’s rights. The fundamental rights of a Sovereign are to life, and to all that life entails: to claim, to retain, to refrain, to sustain, to create, to recreate, to discriminate, and to incriminate. These rights are more fully specified below. Lest there be any doubt, prohibitions are directed toward public servants.
Unalienable Rights and Common Law Rights
Section 1. Self-defense and defense of others. As fundamental as the right to life is, so is the right to defend it. The right to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed upon, and no rule shall be made to restrict the number or kinds of weapons which are held peacefully. This provision shall not preclude a township or county action against an individual or group to prevent injury to others from imminent danger upon a specific threat, nor to restrict the possession of weapons by convicted violent felons with a history of weapon abuse. In such case, the trust executive officer of the Covenant has the burden of proof beyond a shadow of a doubt.
Section 2. Contract. The right to contract and not to contract shall not be infringed upon, with the exception that no court or executive officer shall enforce a contract creating an indenture, the terms of which exceeds seven years. No court shall issue a writ for seizure to enforce an indenture after the seventh year.
Section 3. Religion. The right to free expression of religion shall not be infringed upon.
Section 4. Discrimination and segregation. The right to discriminate for any reason in private affairs shall not be infringed upon. Freedom of conscience to discriminate right from wrong, and to segregate oneself from those who do not share one’s values is inherent in a free society. This private right cannot be delegated to public officials.
Section 5. Speech. The right to free speech and expression shall not be infringed upon.
Section 6. Press. The right to publication in any lawful forum or manner shall not be infringed upon.
Section 7. Locomotion. As fundamental as the right to life is, so is the right to pursue life through movement from place to place. The right to locomotion upon the public ways shall not be infringed upon.
Section 8. Private property. The right to have and hold private property, the fruits of one's labor and intellect, shall not be infringed upon. A free society cannot long last if one cannot obtain and keep the fruits of one’s efforts, and the same shall not be encroached upon by a claim of public need or public good, or by rationale of public necessity.
Section 9. Right to travel. The public roadways and navigable rivers shall forever be free for private travel.
Section 10. Land rights; allodium. All private land shall be held in allodium when not held under mortgage or contract of indenture. An adverse claimant not in possession, claiming title thereof, has the burden of proof of the existence of a separation of title (allodial title in the land, and a lien interest in the land or appurtenance thereon), and that superior title resides in the claimant’s appellation or name.
Section 11. Privacy at home and during travel. The right of men and women to the
reasonable expectation of privacy in their house, automobile, boat or other normal conveyance of the day, shall not be infringed upon.
Section 12. Communication privacy. The right to reasonable expectation of privacy in all interpersonal and electronic communications shall not be infringed upon.
Section 13. Search and seizure. The right to be secure in body, house, mode of private travel, commercial affairs, papers, and effects shall not be infringed upon except upon service of a warrant, to which a bond is attached, supported by asseveration of facts from firsthand knowledge stating the probable cause that the property or individual to be searched is involved in a felonious crime which is under investigation, stating specifically the man or woman or things to be seized relevant to the investigation and prosecution thereof. Absent breach of fiduciary duty under the public trust, no warrant shall issue except upon the bona fide asseveration and bond of an injured party. All other actions shall be upon the bond of the trust officer.
Section 14. Grand jury indictment. No one shall be held to answer for a criminal offense, unless on the presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases of impeachment, or in misdemeanor cases cognizable by justices of the peace where liberty is not at risk, or arising in the army or militia when in actual service during insurrection or public danger. The requirement of a bond to charge a public officer with the power of law shall remain inviolate.
Section 15. Warrants. No arrest shall be made except upon service of a warrant, or upon probable cause of crime if an exigency shall exist, and a showing thereof before a judicial officer by asseveration of facts under pledge or bond from firsthand knowledge as soon as is practicable thereafter, and thereafter by obtaining a warrant; in the case of an alleged exigency, the arresting officer has the burden of proof of such exigency. No seizure shall be made in any other matter unless the action is bona fide and bonded by the plaintiff.
Section 16. Due process of law. The right to due process of law shall not be infringed upon. One accused in a criminal action shall have the right to face the accuser(s), to actual notice of the nature and cause of the claim, to know sufficiently prior to trial every element that the prosecutor must prove to obtain a conviction so that the accused may be able to prepare his/her defense, to settle the claim privately if possible, to compel witnesses on his/her behalf for his/her defense, to a speedy and public trial, with time to prepare a defense, and to a fair trial before an impartial jury of his/her peers.
Section 17. Compelled testimony. In a criminal proceeding, the accused shall not be
compelled to testify against him/herself, nor shall his/her immediate family be compelled by law but may volunteer. No one shall be compelled to be a witness on behalf of one accused without just compensation therefore, which shall bind a contract against perjury; and no one shall be compelled to be a witness against one accused, but shall be justly compensated for any testimony, which shall bind a contract against perjury.
Section 18. Right to counsel. In every court, whether public or private, the accused shall have the right to counsel of willing participants, who shall have a fiduciary duty to the accused, the minimum of which is that of a good Samaritan if unpaid for services, to full liability to the accused for damages resulting from incompetence, and from abuse of fiduciary trust, if counsel is acting in a trade or professional capacity. A good Samaritan has the right to compensation for actual costs.
Section 19. Trial by jury and rights of review. In all cases, whether in tort claim of one tenth troy ounce of fine gold or more, or criminal indictment, the right to trial by jury shall remain; and in all other cases upon demand and payment of costs, and in every
other action, whether for misdemeanor, or breach of the peace tried before a judge or justice of the peace, the accused has a right to trial by jury in an action at law for denial of substantive due process of law and/or abuse of discretion.
Section 20. Abolition of general civil law. There shall be no civil law imposed upon the inhabitants of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, except by commission to public office, nor shall there be fines for civil infractions or petty offenses imposed on a presumption of consent.
Section 21. Presumption of innocence; no double jeopardy. One accused shall be presumed innocent until proven guilty. No accused shall twice be subject to jeopardy in a criminal case for the same alleged act or acts.
Section 22. Bail. All men and women shall, before conviction, be bail-able by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses, when the proof is evident or the presumption great; and the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, nor delayed unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.
Section 23. Truth as defense in slander and libel. In all prosecutions or indictments for slander or libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged as slanderous or libelous is true, and was uttered or published with good motives and for justifiable ends, the accused shall be acquitted.
Section 24. Involuntary servitude. No involuntary servitude shall be imposed except upon conviction of crime where there is no complete or adequate remedy in law, and any proceeds from such servitude shall accrue to the injured party. The term of servitude shall be any term, up to life, as justice requires it.
Section 25. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed, except the prohibition on the enforcement of indentures exceeding seven years, and the prohibition on the practice of usury.
Section 26. Excessive bail, fines, punishment. Excessive bail shall not be required; excessive fines shall not be imposed; and cruel and unusual punishments shall not be inflicted.
Section 27. Right to assemble and petition. The people shall have the right to assemble freely, to consult for the common good, to instruct their representatives, and to petition the Jural Assembly for redress of grievances resulting from legislative act(s) or action(s).
Section 28. Treason. No individual shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act.
Section 29. Acts void; Standing to challenge. Acts of the Legislature, which by incorrect application, violate a right secured, a prohib ition imposed, or mandate required under this Covenant are void in such application. Anyone aggrieved by the act of a public officer who incorrectly applies an act of the Legislature causing a violation of rights herein secured shall have standing to present a claim to the de jure grand jury, and upon a showing of a need for expedition, may bring action for superintending control.
Section 30. Age of majority. The age of majority shall be eighteen years as relates to contract, except in cases of emancipation, any age in which competency is demonstrated to be substantially evident shall be sufficient. But should a controversy arise, the burden of proof is on the of-age party to the contract.
Section 31. Political power: Political power to engage in public affairs is inherent in men and women who have attained the age of thirty-one years.
Section 32. Power to secure rights. The de jure grand jury shall have the power to secure the rights described herein.
Duties of Office
Section 1. Effect of pledge. By pledging to uphold this Covenant, and by taking public office, one is bound to certain duties and standards as are required by one’s respective office, and such pledge does not confer general jurisdiction to the Trust for any other purpose; in all other aspects one remains Sovereign. Those who pledge to uphold this Covenant, not entering public office, or who have vacated office, have pledged, or do pledge, to the inhabitants to live lawfully to the best of their abilities with respect to common law, and no such pledge shall be required in writing to inhabit Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, as such pledge is implied in law, actionable by the injured party upon criminal breach.
Section 2. Money defined. The legislature shall make no thing but gold or silver coin a legal tender in payment of debt, nor shall it keep its accounts denominated in any other medium. This is not to preclude actual acceptance of, nor tender of, bona fide instruments for the payment of specie.
Section 3. Debt prohibited. The legislature shall have no power to borrow on the credit of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, or the people.
Section 4. The legislative power defined. The legislative power shall extend only to contracts on behalf of the public trust for roads, utilities, and other needful things which are not supplied by private enterprise, and to pay the obligations of contract out of the public treasury.
Section 5. Restriction on official contracts. No contract shall be entered into unless the remuneration is certain and the funds for payment are on hand.
Section 6. Prohibition on common, or presumptive, indenture. The legislature has been delegated no authority to bind the people to specific performance, nor position of fealty, other than as provided herein to bind public servants under this covenant.
Section 7. Prohibition on forced medication. No public officer shall introduce a chemical into the public water or air with intent to medicate, poison, or injure the people.
Section 8. Prohibition on public health mandates. Trust delegates and public officers shall make no rule respecting the exercise of private health care, nor shall they provide for public health care other than by insuring reasonably pure public air and water.
Section 9. Prohibition on grant of special privileges. Trust delegates and public officers shall not grant a franchise of exclusive privilege, nor shall it grant limited liability to any man or woman or fiction of law.
Section 10. Prohibition on licensing trades and professions. Neither the legislative nor executive branch shall engage in licensing any professions.
Section 11. No recognition of war except as lawfully approved by the national House of Delegates. A declaration of war shall not be recognized without the lawful authorization of the warrant by the national level House of Delegates and implemented by the President.
Section 12. Prohibition on declaration of war. The Legislature shall have no power to declare war, nor shall the executive branch have such power, unless imminent invasion is determined, nor to send members of the militia to war with a foreign state or nation, unless imminent threat has been determined. Any militia/military member who commits a crime within Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, whether acting alone or in concert with others, shall be deemed a criminal, enjoying no privilege of militia/military status or immunities.
Section 13. Prohibition on forced use of private dwellings for military. During armed conflict or insurrection, no member of the militia/military may be quartered in a private house or dwelling without consent of the owner or his agent.
Section 14. Eminent domain. The people are supreme, and shall have dominion over their private property, land and possessions. No private thing or land shall be seized and used for public purposes.
Section 15. Prohibition on public discrimination. The rights enumerated herein shall not be diminished on any account, particularly those that cause injury to personal need, such as capacity and access.
Section 16. Penalty for public officer introducing restrictions on the right to keep and bear arms. The introduction of any resolution or rule to diminish the right to keep and bear arms except as herein provided, or presenting a bill for taking up arms against a foreign state or nation, except while under actual attack, shall be grounds for expulsion from office and disqualification, for life, from further holding office of trust under the Covenant of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State. A separate registry shall be kept by the House of Statesmen identifying all parties who have been found guilty under this provision.
Section 17. Limitation on public property. Public ministers shall not hold in trust public land the total area of which exceeds seven percent of the total area of all private land within the geographic parameters of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State. The legislature shall make provisions to audit the private land every seventh year but shall not have the power to compel an accounting. The legislature shall have reasonable time to make adjustments to the public land trust upon validation of audit, the performance of which is to be reviewed by the House of Statesmen.
Section 18. Right to alter or abolish. This public trust is instituted for the protection, security, and benefit of the people, and the people at all times have the right to alter or reform the same, and to abolish one form of administrative body and establish another whenever they deem it necessary to secure the operation of law and the enjoyment of liberty as herein described.
Section 19. Supreme law of the land. This covenant shall be the supreme law of the land, and all public ministers shall be bound hereto with respect to their ministerial duties. The law with respect to, and of the people, shall be common law, the common law as herein defined.
Section 20. Limitation on powers. All powers exercised by the administrators of this public trust are by delegation of the people, the people having reserved the same to themselves and not granted any power or authority to, nor vested it in the public trust. No power shall be exercised inconsistent with these intents, and the people reserve the right to remove from office and prosecute any offender through whatever lawful means is necessary.
Form of Government, Extent of Jurisdiction, and Separation of Powers
Section 1. Form of government. The form of governance shall be both implied by construction and expressed, with justice administered by grand and petit juries, who shall oversee the administration of a perpetual public trust comprised of four separate branches, Jural, Judicial, Legislative, and Executive.
Section 2. Limitation on jurisdiction. The powers of the public trust to act on behalf of the people in Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, shall extend only to the public offices created hereunder, and to the property held in trust, and shall not extend to private property, nor to the people themselves.
Section 3. The powers of the petit jury and grand jury. The powers of the petit jury and grand jury are inherent in the people to keep the peace, and to investigate and arrest any abuses of power committed by actors commissioned in the other three branches.
Section 4. Separation of powers. One branch shall not exercise the powers of another, except as expressly provided in this covenant.
General Qualifications and Disqualifications for Office
Section 1. General qualification for public office.
Except where otherwise specified, anyone who has reached the age of thirty-one years of age and has been domiciled in Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, for a period of one year is qualified to seek public office.
Section 2. Ineligibility to hold public office. Men or women who:
A. Have been convicted of an infamous crime, or
B. Hold a position of trust or fealty which is at odds with this public trust, or which might become at odds with this public trust, or
C. Have been an attorney, or a member of the British Accreditation Registry (BAR association) of any state, or former state under the Republic of the United States, within the prior fifteen years of seeking to hold office, or
D. Are members of any order requiring an oath of allegiance, unless they be released from th eir oath, are ineligible for public office. (One cannot serve two masters.)
E. Anyone who has been found guilty under the provisions of Article II, Section 1 of this covenant is ineligible for public office.
Grand and Petit Juries
Section 1. Grand jury formation. Grand Juries may be formed by any body of twenty-seven men and women who qualify for public office. A fewer number of jurors may convene in an exigent circumstance, in which the exigency shall be specified and assented to by all jurors present, but under no circumstance shall the number be fewer than twelve.
Section 2. Grand jury powers. Grand Juries shall have the powers to issue summons, investigate crime, and to return a presentment or true bill upon indictment without approval of any other branch.
Section 3. Petit jury; number; place. Petit Juries shall consist of twelve members of the community where the controversy arose, except in exigent circumstances the number may be fewer, but in no wise less than nine, who shall be seated as needed.
Section 4. Selection. Petit Juries shall be selected in a manner as prescribed by the Jural Assembly, except upon indictment of a public official for crimes in office which constitute a breach of fiduciary trust, in which case the jury shall be selected by the House of Statesmen from among the people in the vicinity in which the crime was committed.
Section 5. Grand jury members excluded. Members of the Grand Jury shall not sit on a Petit Jury which presides over the trial of an accused under indictment from that same Grand Jury.
Section 6. Independence. Petit Juries shall have the power to convict on Grand Jury
presentment or indictment that has been brought to trial, without respect to any other branch of government, and if the prosecutor to which a true bill of indictment has been presented refuses to prosecute, the Grand Jury shall appoint a special prosecutor, who shall have the power to prosecute.
Section 7. Function twofold. Grand and Petit Juries shall be a check on private men and women who choose a life of crime, and a balance against the abuse of public office.
Section 1. There shall be one Supreme Court for the Covenant of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State. It is the paramount function of the Supreme Court to bind the Legislative and Executive branches to the confines of this Covenant. The Supreme Court shall exercise sovereignty only over controversies brought before it, and everyone inhabiting Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, has standing to bring an action for declaratory judgment on the factual application of any rule, law, or regulation which has been imposed upon him by a public official relative to the requirements of this covenant.
Section 2. The judicial power of the Covenant of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, shall be delegated to one Supreme Court consisting of five justices, and to Appellate and Trial courts the Legislature establishes.
Section 3. The justices of the supreme court shall hold their office for the term of seven years; they shall be nominated by Chief Trustee; by advice and consent of three-fourths of the House of Statesmen, the nominee will be appointed. They shall receive an adequate compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office with good behavior. But they shall receive no fees or perquisites of office, nor simultaneously hold any other office of profit or trust under the authority of the Covenant.
Section 4. Supervisory powers. The Supreme Court shall have supervisory powers over all inferior public courts, and by application of a litigant, shall have review powers over private courts for abuse of process and denial of due process of law.
Section 5. County Justices, elections, term. Justices of all county courts shall be elected by the people of the county which they inhabit, and shall hold their office for four years. No justice shall hold office for more than two consecutive terms.
Section 6. Justices of the peace. Each township may elect four justices of the peace, who shall hold their offices for four years; and whose powers and duties shall be defined and regulated by statute. At their first election, they shall be classed and divided by lot into numbers one, two, three, and four, to be determined as provided by statute; so that one justice shall be annually elected in each township thereafter. Each justice must live within the township in which he/she serves and moving his domicile from the township shall be a vacation of the office.
Section 7. Clerks. The Supreme Court shall appoint its own clerk or clerks. County clerks shall be elected by the inhabitants of the county, shall hold office for a term of four years, and shall serve as the clerk for the county and the county court of record. No clerk shall hold office for more than two consecutive terms.
Section 8. The creation of private courts shall be encouraged, but not funded, and all actions in equity shall be reviewable to the Appellate Court for claims of abuse of discretion, and to the Supreme Court for claims of breach of this Covenant or unalienable right. All claims at common law before a jury of peers are reviewable through the course of the common law, but not in equity, except for allegations of fraud, denial of due process, or other crimes involved therewith.
Section 9. Qualifications for office of judge and justice of the peace. In addition to the general qualifications for office as herein are provided, and the disqualifications, an individual must pass an examination based upon this Covenant and fundamental principles of law and equity, which shall be prepared by the House of Statesmen, and which shall be given at regular intervals, and at such place and time as the House may determine. Anyone obtaining a passing score shall be eligible to accept and hold judicial office for a period of up to twenty years on good behavior, at which time one must take the then current qualifying test.
Section 10. Restitution and punitive damages for crimes against a victim shall accrue to the victim.
Section 11. Crimes against the public peace, health, and safety shall accrue to the victims, and/or public trust.
Section 12. Actions to prosecute felonious crimes shall commence by Grand Jury indictment.
Section 13. Requirement; accusation of crime. No action may be commenced for crime unless upon pledge against perjury of an injured party specifying with reasonable particularity the injury. Actions against the public trust must state with particularity the injury caused and the damages assessed, and be attested to by the public fiduciary in charge, who shall be held liable in the event of his/her perjury, or abuse of discretion, as an attachment against his/her bond or private property, or both.
Section 14. Equitable relief; writ of prohibition; and protection orders. Actions for equitable relief may be had upon probable cause of an act of intent to commit crime where there is no injury alleged, and under extraordinary circumstances where there is sufficient evidence of expressed intent to commit crime followed by no act. Upon reasonable grounds, and with sufficient securities, parties may obtain restraining orders and other extraordinary remedies.
Section 15. Style of process. The style of all process shall be “By claim of (the injured party), and in the name of the people of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State” or if the breach is against public property, it shall be “in the name of the people of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State”.
Establishment of the Official Assemblies
Section 1. There shall be established an Assembly of inhabitants which shall be composed of two separate houses, a higher house, and a lower house. The higher house shall be known as the House of Statesmen, and the lower house shall be known as the House of Delegates.
Section 2. The House of Statesmen shall be comprised of Statesmen, charged with the duty of reporting to the Jural Assembly the acts of the House of Statesmen as they shall deem necessary. All resolutions respecting the remedies and punishments for crime shall be introduced in the House of Statesmen. Each act, resolution, or statute shall not address more than one particular and specific issue, shall be written in plain English, and shall not exceed one eight-and-a-half by eleven-inch page, with one-inch margins, single spaced, in twelve-point Times New Roman type or reasonable equivalent.
A. Qualifications for office. In addition to general qualifications and exclusions, each Statesman shall have reached the age of thirty-three years, and shall be domiciled within a county of the three or five county region in which he/she has been selected. The removal of domicile to another county region or out of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, shall be deemed a vacancy of office.
B. Minimum and maximum number and provisions for change. There shall be one Statesmen representing a five county region, who shall be seated in the House of Statesmen by election of the Jural Assembly within each respective region, three of which shall represent five counties, and one shall represent three.
C. Privilege from arrest. Except for treason, felony, and breach of peace, Statesmen shall enjoy privilege from arrest during session of the House of Statesmen; they shall not be subject to service of process for fifteen days before, during, and fifteen days after, each session.
D. Elections. Elections shall be held every two years. Statesmen shall be elected by popular vote from among the qualified electors of each geographical area representing a collective five county region, and one geographical area representing a three county region, the final region being comprised of 3 counties because of the divisor used to create the regions. This division shall be updated when necessary.
Section 3. The House of Delegates
A. Number of delegates. Minimum and maximum number and provisions for change: There shall be one representing each county who shall be seated in the House of Delegates by election of the Jural Assembly within each county. This division shall never change.
B. Terms. Delegates shall serve for two-year terms, and shall be qualified to serve two consecutive terms, except as provided in subsection D. below.
C. Exception: At the first session of the House of Delegates under this Covenant, Delegates shall be divided into two classes by adjacent counties and each class determined by lot as to whether it is the first class or the second. The first class shall vacate their seat at the expiration of the second year, and the second class shall vacate their seat at the expiration of the fourth year.
D. Qualifications for office. In addition to general qualifications for office, and disqualifications, each delegate must have reached the age of thirty-one years, and be domiciled in the county that he/she represents. Moving from the county is a voluntary vacation of office.
E. Privilege from arrest. Delegates shall enjoy the same privilege from arrest and service of process as do Statesmen.
F. Census, time of taking. The House of Delegates shall provide by statute for an enumeration of the inhabitants of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, in the year two thousand twenty-two and every ten years thereafter.
G. Election of delegates. The interim delegates shall be chosen by the first Tuesday of November, two thousand twenty-one, and shall take office the day the vassalage known as the State of Alaska is declared by the people to have been fraudulently instituted, that the intent ab initio of the people ipso facto is expressed in this Covenant, and the people, by choice, institute a new public trust and delegate new trustees under this Covenant. Each organized county shall be entitled to elect one delegate to the House of Delegates who shall serve a term of two years.
Section 4. General rules for both houses:
A. Quorum, adjournment, attendance, officers. Three fourths of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and may compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide. Each house shall choose its own officers.
B. Rules: Each house shall determine the rules of its proceedings, and be judge of the qualifications, elections and returns of its own members; and may, with concurrence of three-fourths of all the members elected, expel a member. But, in no event shall the rules deny the representation of any delegate, or skew the expressed intent of the people. Abuses of rules are reviewable by application to the Supreme Court by a member of a house.
C. Journals; yeas and nays. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, publish the same, and shall record and report to the public the yeas and nays of the members on each vote by the most efficient means available.
D. Right of dissent. Any member of each respective house shall have liberty to dissent from, and protest against, an act or resolution which he shall deem injurious to the public at large, or to any of the people, and have the reasons for dissent entered into the journal.
E. Conduct and publication of elections. In elections for officers of either house, all nominations shall be recorded, and all votes on nominations shall be individually tabulated, recorded, and both nominations and votes shall be published in the journal of its proceedings.
F. Adjournment: Neither house shall, without consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to a place other than where the Legislature may then be in session.
G. Transparency: The doors to both houses shall be open to the public.
H. Checks and Balances: Every act by either house must be approved by the other and sent to the Supreme Court for judgment in accord with this Covenant before being sent to the desk of the Chief Trustee.
I. Progression of acts of the Legislature: Every act passed by the legislature, before it is presented to the Chief Trustee, shall be forwarded to the Supreme Court for review to determine whether the act is in compliance with this Covenant, and if deemed not, returned with a statement of deficiency for adjustment, and if deemed so in accord, then forwarded to the Chief Trustee. If the Chief Trustee approves, he shall sign it; but if not, the Chief Trustee shall return it with objections to the house in which it originated, which house shall enter the objections at large upon the journal and proceed to reconsider it, or to scrap it. If, after such reconsideration, three-fourths of all members agree to pass the act, it shall be sent with the ob jections, to the other house, by which it shall be reconsidered, and if approved by three-fourths of all members, it shall become law. If an act is not returned by the Chief Trustee within ten days, Sundays excepted, after it has been presented to the Chief Trustee, the same shall be deemed a veto. Three-fourths of the members of each house constitutes a quorum, such that if only three-fourths are present, approval must be unanimous. The legislature may override a veto by unanimous decision.
J. Resolutions proceed as acts; exception: Every resolution to which the concurrence of both houses may be necessary, except in cases of adjournment, shall be presented to the Chief Trustee, and before the same shall take effect, shall be proceeded upon in the same manner as in the case of an act.
K. Compensation: The members of the legislature shall receive for their services a compensation to be ascertained by the electorate, and paid out of the public treasury for the actual time in session. No increase of the compensation shall be determined by either house, nor will any increase be introduced by any member of either house. There shall be no retirement account at public expense, nor medical benefits, excepting the possibility of insurance for catastrophic events while in office.
L. Members excluded from appointment to office during term. No member of the legislature shall receive appointment to public office from the Chief Trustee, nor from the legislature, during the term for which he is elected to office.
M. Writs of election for filling vacancies. The Chief Trustee shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies as may occur in either house.
N. The legislature shall be part time and shall meet on the first Monday in March in every year, and every business day thereafter until adjourned, and at no other period, unless otherwise directed by the Chief Trustee, or provided for in this Covenant.
O. Style of laws: The style of the laws of the Covenant of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, shall be: “Be it enacted by the Legislature for the people of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State.” Each law shall include an enactment clause specifying the date, the number of votes yea and nay, and which legislators voted yea or nay.
Section 1. Fiduciary duty. Officers of the executive branch have a fiduciary duty to the people to know this Covenant, to decline to obey any order which he/she in good conscience believes is in conflict with this Covenant, to bring the offending order with articulated basis for a challenge to his/her immediate superior for disposition, and to inform his/her Statesman as soon as practicable of the contested order and the disposition of the challenge by his/her superior. An order directed by the Chief Trustee to any inferior is immediately reviewable by a Supreme Court Justice upon contest of the inferior officer, and if sustained, but still in contest, then by the whole Court. The Legislature shall provide rules for the additional review and disposition of administrative orders.
Section 2. Chief Trustee and Deputy Trustee; power, term. The executive power shall be delegated to a Chief Trustee, who shall hold office for four years. A Deputy Trustee shall be elected for the same time and term. Chief Trustee and Deputy Trustee shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.
Section 3. Eligibility. In addition to general requirements, no man or woman shall be eligible for the office of Chief Trustee or Deputy Trustee who shall not have been domiciled in Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, for two years preceding election, and who shall not have attained the age of thirty-three years.
Section 4. Election. The Chief Trustee and Deputy Trustee shall be elected by the people of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State. Those obtaining the highest number of votes for Chief Trustee and Deputy Trustee shall be elected.
Section 5. Returns of elections. The returns of every election for Chief Trustee and Deputy Trustee shall be sealed and transmitted to the seat of county government by the election returns officer, directed to the president of the House of Statesmen, who shall receive and publish them in the presence of the members of both houses.
Section 6. Chief Trustee; militia. The Chief Trustee shall call for the assembly of the militia of a county, or several counties, upon the direction of the Legislature, and shall coordinate their action in the event of imminent attack or insurrection by providing information and advice, but shall not have the power to issue orders of command, which shall be reserved to county commanders and their volunteers.
Section 7. Chief Trustee; powers. The Chief Trustee shall have all powers necessary to execute the duties of the office, and shall have the power to require a report from any other executive officer in the pursuance thereof.
Section 8. Restriction on office. While in office, the Chief Trustee shall not hold any other office in Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State or any other public office at a local or national level.
Section 9. Pardon power. The Chief Trustee shall have the power to grant reprieves, and upon advice and consent of the House of Statesmen, pardons, except in cases of impeachment.
Section 10. Appointments to vacancies. When any office, the appointment to which is delegated to the Chief Trustee and the House of Statesmen, becomes vacant during the recess of the House of Statesmen, the Chief Trustee shall have power to fill such vacancy by charging a Jurist with a commission, which shall expire at the end of the succeeding session of the House of Statesmen.
Section 11. Powers and duties of Chief Trustee; devolution on Deputy Trustee. In case of the impeachment of the Chief Trustee, by way of removal from office, death, resignation, or absence from Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State; the powers and duties of the office shall devolve upon the Deputy Trustee until such disability shall cease, or the vacancy be filled.
Section 12. Devolution on president pro tempore of Statesmen. If, during the vacancy of the office of Chief Trustee, the Deputy Trustee shall be impeached, displaced, resign, die, or be absent from Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, the president of the House of Statesmen pro tempore, shall act as Chief Trustee, until the vacancy be filled.
Section 13. Deputy Trustee ex officio president of the House of Statesmen. The Deputy Trustee shall, by virtue of his/her office, be president of the House of Statesmen in committee of the whole. He/she may participate in the debate in all issues and, when there is an equal division, he/she shall cast the deciding vote.
Section 14. Deputy Trustee; filling of vacancy. Whenever the office of Chief Trustee or Deputy Trustee becomes vacant, the one temporarily exercising the power of Chief Trustee shall give notice thereof, and the people shall at a special election choose someone to fill the vacancy.
Section 15. Chief Trustee compensation. The Chief Trustee shall, at stated times, receive for his/her services a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the term for which he/she has been elected, and such compensation shall be determined by the recorded electors.
Section 16. Deputy Trustee; compensation. The Deputy Trustee, except when acting as Chief Trustee, and the president of the House of Statesmen pro tempore, shall each receive the same compensation as shall be allowed to the speaker of the House of Delegates, and such compensation shall be determined by the registered electors.
Section 17. Great seal. A great seal for Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, shall be provided by the Chief Trustee, which shall contain the device and inscriptions, represented and described in the papers relating thereto, signed by the president of the convention, and deposited in the office of the secretary of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State. It shall be kept by the secretary of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State; and all official acts of the Chief Trustee, the approbation of laws executed, shall be thereby authenticated with the Great Seal.
Section 18. Commissions. All commissions shall be made in the name of the people of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, through delegation of authority to the trustees of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State.
Section 19. Grants and disbursements. The Trustee shall have no power to grant but shall make disbursements to the registered electors domiciled in Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, in order to comply with the provisions of Article IV, Section 17 of this covenant.
Section 20. Duties of the Chief Trustee. The Chief Trustee shall:
A. manage all public domain property within the geographical boundary of Alaska. The public domain property is the substance of the expressed trust called the Covenant of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State;
B. execute contract agreements, make purchases, dispose of public property to private parties by sale or otherwise for the benefit of the public, and maintain the public assets as directed by legislature, with such exceptions as are herein provided;
C. secure the Alaska treasury, and make periodic statements of account available to the public and have no other treasury duty foreign to Alaska;
D. make rules for use of the roadways, and of the public waterways, and of the air which are not in conflict with treaties with the other assembled states of America, to aid in the exercise and enjoyment of locomotion, which shall be the presumptive basis for damage claims in law against those who do not follow applicable rules, but which shall not be enforced by distrait, restraint, nor penalty, except upon actual injury, or breach of the peace and imminent danger to life and limb;
E. with advice and consent of the legislature, provide for the common defense by organizing and training a militia of volunteers, the members of which shall not serve in official capacity for more than two years, and who shall retain their small arms weapons upon release;
F. commission officers and other personnel needful for maintaining continuity in training and superintending militia members and for the upkeep of public equipment necessary to provide for common defense;
G. in no event, call the militia for use against anyone who is engaged in peaceful activity, nor to suppress a revolt against political power by passive resistance; but shall reserve the militia to suppress, with reasonable force, violent insurrections upon the peace and tranquility of any community within Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State.
Section 1. Militia; organization and discipline. The legislature shall provide by law for organizing and disciplining the militia in such manner as they shall deem expedient, not incompatible with this Covenant. Discipline means to work in concert, and to adhere to certain principles. Expulsion shall be the only remedy for a discipline problem, other than common law remedies for crime.
Section 2. Discipline of officers. The legislature shall provide for the efficient discipline of the Officers, commissioned and non-commissioned, and musicians, and may provide by law for the organization and discipline of volunteer companies.
Section 3. Election or appointment of officers. Officers of the militia shall be elected or appointed in such manner as the Legislature shall from time to time direct, and shall be commissioned by the Chief Trustee.
Section 4. Purposes. The Chief Trustee shall have power to call forth the militia to enforce contracts of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, to suppress insurrections, and repel invasions.
Officers of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, and County Officers
Section 1. Secretary of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, term, appointment, duties. There shall be a secretary of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, who shall hold office for two years, and who shall be nominated by the Chief Trustee, by and with the advice and consent three-fourths of the House of Statesmen, the nominee shall be appointed. Such individual shall keep a fair record of the official acts of the legislative and executive departments of the governance under Covenant, and shall, when required, lay those records and all matters relative thereto, before either branch of the Legislature, and shall perform such other duties as shall be assigned by law.
Section 2. Treasurer; appointment, term. A treasurer for Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, shall be appointed by a joint vote of three-fourths of the two houses of the Legislature, and shall hold office for the term of two years.
Section 3. Trust Auditor, Trust Advocate, appointment, term. There shall be a Trust
Auditor and a Trust Advocate for Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, who shall be nominated by the Chief Trustee with the advice and consent of three-fourths of the House of Statesmen, the nominee shall be appointed whose powers and duties shall be prescribed by law, and who shall hold their offices for two years.
Section 4. County Prosecutors. County Prosecutors, whose duties shall be prescribed by law, shall be voted into office by the jurists within the jural assembly of the respective counties, who shall hold office for a term of two years, and who shall be removed in a manner prescribed by law on the initiative of the people in the county by fifty-one percent of those electing upon the matter, or by obtaining signatures of fifty-one percent of the inhabitants within the county upon a petition for removal.
Section 5. County officers, election, terms; sheriff's security. There shall be a Sheriff, a county Treasurer, and one or more Coroners, a Recorder of Deeds and a County Surveyor, chosen by the electors in each of the several counties once in every three years, and as often as vacancies shall happen. They shall hold no other office. The Sheriff may be required by law to renew the security bond from time to time, and in default of giving such security bond, the Sheriff's office shall be deemed vacant; but the County shall never be liable for acts of the Sheriff.
Impeachments and Removals from Office
Section 1. Impeachments. The House of Delegates shall have the sole power to impeach all officers of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, for corrupt conduct in office, or for crimes and misdemeanors; but a three-fourths majority of all the members elected shall be necessary to direct an impeachment.
Section 2. Procedure. All impeachments shall be tried by the House of Statesmen. When the Chief Trustee or Deputy Trustee shall be tried, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court shall preside. Before the trial of an impeachment, the members of the court shall make a pledge to truly and impartially try and determine the charge in question, according to the evidence; and no individual shall be convi cted without the concurrence of three-fourths of the members. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend beyond removal from office; but the party convicted shall be liable to indictment and punishment according to law.
Section 3. Power of Chief Trustee to remove judges. For disability, abuse of discretion, or corruption, which shall not be sufficient ground for the impeachment of the judges of any of the Courts, the Chief Trustee shall remove any of them on the consent of three-fourths of each branch of the Legislature; but the cause, or causes, for which such removal may be required, shall be stated at length in the address.
Section 4. Removal of county and township officers. The Legislature shall provide by law for the removal of justices of the peace and other county and township officers, in such manner, and for such cause, as to them shall seem just and proper.
Section 1. Encouragement. Education, being necessary for a free society, the education of the inhabitants shall be forever encouraged, but shall not be provided, nor compulsory, the same being repugnant to both common law and freedom. All forms of education whether private, home, or charter or parochial schools, shall be encouraged in this free and independent state.
Section 2. School Boards. For the duration of public education in Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, each locality or county shall, as nominated by the jurists, and elected by popular vote, establish a school board to set minimum education standards relative to reading, writing, and arithmetic for grades kindergarten through twelve, and shall examine the curriculum to alert the community to opinions and philosophies which are injurious to a free and independent state.
Section 3. Competition Among Schools. Private schools shall hire staff, determine curriculum, and set disciplinary standards and prices.
Section 4. Transition. All school boards are charged to seek entrepreneurs to engage in the business of education. Such individuals shall contract with the school districts to purchase the land and buildings. Receipts from sale of said properties shall be awarded to the local municipalities for operating expenses of the school.
Highways and Roads
Section 1. New Highways and Highway Maintenance. The Chief Trustee shall nominate a Director of Highways, and by the advice and consent of three-fourths of the House of Statesmen, the nominee shall be appointed who shall have the responsibility of determining the location of new roads and of road maintenance.
Section 2. Funding for Highways and Maintenance. The Legislature shall receive a feasibility study that will include cost estimates and assessments deemed necessary to purchase land, construct the road or highway, and the maintenance of such road. The Legislature will then determine the available funds, the amount of necessary funds to be raised, and how to raise the additional funds.
Prohibition of Slavery
Section 1. Slavery prohibited. Slavery shall not be tolerated. Convicts who shall have been duly indicted and convicted may be required to pay reasonable labor for the benefit of the victim, or the Trust of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, as is herein provided. Such labor may not be inhumane, nor excessive, neither physically nor mentally.
Section 2. Principle of Dignity. Honest work is a much better behavior modifier than is punishment; and where there is an injury to either one of the people, or to all equally, the fruits of a convict’s labor will be greater if he be treated with due dignity; upon release into society he or she will be a better man or woman.
Section 1. Official affirmation, form. Members of the Alaska General Jural Assembly, and all officers, executive and legislative except such inferior officers as may by law be exempted, shall, before they enter on the duties of their respective offices, be asked, “In the performance of your duties, will you support the Covenant of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State”? and they shall respond:
“Yes, on my honor, I pledge to faithfully discharge the duties of the office of __________________ according to the best of my ability, in accord with the Covenant of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, so help me God."
Section 2. Surety Bond. All such officers shall provide sufficient surety bonds against public harm for their term of office.
Section 3. Judge’s declaration. In addition to the above, a candidate for Judge must also declare, “As my word is my bond, I will f aithfully and truly administer justice to the best of my knowledge and ability, giving preference to no one, and shall recuse myself from any matter in which I may have an interest or prejudice.” Each judge shall be doubly pledged and bonded, one against public breach, and one against private injury.
Section 4. Internal improvements, scope. Internal improvement shall be encouraged by the administration of this Covenant; and it shall be the duty of the Legislature, as soon as may be possible, to make provision by law for ascertaining the proper objects of improvement, in relation to employment of the inhabitants of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, in regard to roads, canals and navigable waters; and it shall also be its duty to provide by law for an equal, systematic, economical application of the funds which may be appropriated to these objectives.
Section 5. Treasury withdrawals; annual statement, publication. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and an accurate statement of the receipts and expenditures of the public money shall be attached to and published with the laws annually. Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, under Covenant shall be entitled to maintain a surplus in money consistent with the provisions of Article III, Section 17, but in no wise shall carry a debt past the end of the sixth fiscal year. It is the duty of the governing body to issue a budget report, balancing the books, to the inhabitants of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, within thirty days of the report being validated by the Legislature.
Section 6. Marriage / Sacred Union. Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, shall have no jurisdiction over a family.
Section 7. Public records. In a file, the Clerk shall make public all documents that the inhabitants of a county may bring to create a public record.
Section 8. Lotteries / Casinos. No additional lotteries or casinos shall be authorized by Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, under Covenant. All sales of lottery tickets allowed shall be accounted for and all prize funds shall be conveyed from the proceeds to the identified winner. The percentage of the division of the proceeds determined by law shall be sufficient to cover costs, expenses and payroll of the lottery. All unclaimed prize funds shall be awarded to the trust treasury for use by Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State.
Section 9. Organization of counties. There shall be 19 counties, as follows; Aleutians East, Anchorage, Bristol Bay, Denali, Fairbanks North Star, Haines, Juneau, Kenai, Ketchikan, Kodiak Island, Lake and Peninsula, Matanuska-Susitna, North Slope, Northwest Arctic, Petersburg, Sitka, Skagway, Wrangel, Yakutat. All other populated areas shall be categorized as an Unorganized County, and shall have a Deputy Sheriff or Constable elected by the community.
Section 10. Location of Covenant offices. The Chief Trustee, Secretary of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, Treas urer of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, and Trust Auditor shall keep their offices at the seat of government.
Section 11. Seat of government. The seat of government for the Trust of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, under Covenant, shall be at ___________________, or at such other place or places as may be prescribed or determined by law.
Section 12. Chief Trustee and Deputy Trustee, term. The first Chief Trustee and Deputy Trustee shall hold their offices until the first Monday after January the second, two thousand _________, or until such time thereafter that their successors shall be determined qualified and elected. Thereafter, they shall hold their offices for two years.
Section 13. Successor's term. When a vacancy shall happen, occasioned by the death, resignation, or removal from office of any one holding office of Trust under this Covenant, the successor thereto shall hold his office for the period which was remaining to his/her predecessor, and no longer, unless again chosen or reappointed.
Mode of Amending and Revising the Covenant
Section 1. Covenantal amendments; legislative and referendum procedure.
A. Legislative. Any amendment or amendments to this Covenant may be proposed in either house, and, if the same shall be agreed to by a three-fourths majority of the members elected to each of the two houses, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be entered on their journals, with the yeas and nays taken thereon and shall be published for three months previous to the time of passing such amendment; such proposed amendment or amendments shall be agreed to by three-fourths of all the members elected to each house, then it shall be the duty of the Legislature to submit such proposed amendment or amendments to the people, in such manner, and at such time, as the Legislature shall prescribe, and if the people shall approve and ratify such amendment or amendments by a majority of the electors, then such ratified amendment, or amendments, shall be added to this Covenant, but in no wise shall any provision be removed. If it appears a provision needs removal, an amendment voiding the provision to be removed must be used, and the new provision inserted along with such provision, so that future generations might revisit the decision.
B. Initiative and referendum; limitations; appropriations; petitions.
1. Limitations. The people reserve to themselves all powers in private matters, and as to delegated powers in public matters, the people reserve the right to propose, enact, and reject laws binding upon public ministers, called an initiative, and the power to approve or reject laws enacted by the legislature, ca lled a referendum. The power of initiative extends only to laws which the legislature may enact under this Covenant. The power of referendum does not extend to acts making appropriations for institutions of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, nor to meet deficiencies in funds belonging to Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, and must be invoked in the manner prescribed by law within ninety days following the final adjournment of the legislative session at which the act was enacted. To invoke the initiative or referendum, a petition must be signed by an elector and submitted to the county grand jury for review, the grand jury may invoke the initiative or the referendum.
2. Referendum, approval. No law as to which the power of referendum properly has been invoked shall be effective unless approved by a majority of the electors at the next general election.
3. Initiative; duty of Legislature, referendum. Any law proposed by initiative shall be either enacted or rejected by the legislature without change or amendment within forty session days from the time such petition is received by the legislature. If any law proposed by such petition shall be enacted by the legislature, it shall be subject to referendum as hereinafter provided.
4. Legislative rejection of initiated measure; different measure; submission to people. If the law so proposed is not enacted by the legislature within the forty days, the Trust officer authorized by law shall submit such proposed law to the people for approval or rejection at the next general election. The legislature may reject any measure so proposed by initiative petition and propose a different measure upon the same subject by yea and nay vote upon separate roll calls, and in such event both measures shall be submitted by such Trust officer to the electors for approval or rejection at the next general election.
5. Initiative or referendum law; effective date, veto, amendment and repeal. Any law submitted to the people by either initiative or referendum petition, and approved by a majority vote of the votes cast thereon at any election shall take effect ten days after the date of the official declaration of the vote. No law initiated or adopted by the people shall be subject to the official declaration of the vote. No law initiated or adopted by the people shall be subject to the veto power of the Chief Trustee, but it may be challenged on Covenantal grounds by anyone aggrieved by it by action brought into the Supreme Court, and no law adopted by the people at the polls under the initiative provisions of this section shall be amended or repealed, except by a vote of the electors unless otherwise provided in the initiative measure, or by three-fourths of the members elected and serving in each house of the legislature. Laws approved by the people under the referendum provision of this section may be amended by the legislature at any subsequent session thereof. If two or more measures approved by the electors at the same election conflict, the one receiving the highest affirmative vote shall prevail.
6. Legislative implementation. The legislature shall implement the provisions of this section.
Section 2. Covenantal convention. If at any time three-fourths of both houses shall determine it is necessary to revise or change this entire Covenant, they shall recommend to the people, at the next election for members of the jural assembly, to vote for or against a Covenantal convention; and if it shall be determined that a majority of the electors at such election have voted in favor of calling a convention, the legislature shall, at its next session, provide by law for calling a convention, to be held within six months after the passage of such law; and such convention shall consist of a number of electors, but not less than one qualified elector from each county of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State.
Schedule of Peaceful Conversion
Section 1. As soon as is practicable, after the ratification of the various covenants with the people of the several free and independent states of the Republic for the United States of America, and providing for the territories of the United States to enter a covenant on equal footing with the contiguous free and independent states, including Hawaii, delegates of the various states which are acting under a constitution of fealty to the United States shall enact a covenant only with those free and independent states which shall by covenant express a will to throw off the pledge of fealty to the United States of America and its undeclared Lord, which was entered into in error by fraudulent inducement, and enter the world on equal standing with free nations, to provide for the harmonious intercourse among those people having been joined by culture and other similarities by the United States, and to provide for their common defense, to guarantee certain expectations which were entered into in good faith, such as social security, and to facilitate equitable distribution of public funds.
Section 2. Convictions to remain in force, statutes void. Since the State of Alaska is in fact a feudal vassalage, operating under Roman civil law, in which citizens are presumed to have pledged allegiance, and since the intent of the people is to live in freedom, then, by ratifying this Covenant there shall forever be a presumption of freedom, and a positive presumption of no allegiance. No laws or statutes enforced under the civil law now in force in Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, shall remain in force. As statutes must reflect common law to be enforceable within the operation of law, and, acknowledging that many do not, all criminal prosecutions which were commenced based upon statutes in accord with elements of common law crime shall be upheld until such time each can come under review. All nonviolent misdemeanor convictions of victimless crimes shall be forgiven and released as soon as practicable, and all others shall have priority review. All nonviolent felons shall have second priority review, and shall be forgiven and released, or retained, accordingly. All fines to the State of Alaska due and payable at the time of ratification shall be forgiven. All laws, statutes, ordinances, and rules repugnant to this Covenant are void ab initio by the ratification of this Covenant.
Section 3. Fines, penalties and escheats to Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, in trust under Covenant. All forfeitures and escheats accruing to the State of Alaska, shall accrue to the use of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State.
Section 4. Recognizances valid. All recognizances heretofore taken by the State of Alaska, or which may be taken before the organization of the judicial department under this Covenant, shall remain valid, and shall pass over to the county prosecutor to refer to the grand jury of the county where applicable or shall be discharged and released. All bonds executed to the Governor under the State of Alaska, or to any other officer in his official capacity, shall pass over to the Chief Trustee, or other respective trust officer, and to their successors in office, for the uses therein respectively expressed, and may be sued for and recovered accordingly. All criminal prosecutions and penal actions, which have arisen, or which may arise before the organization of the judicial department under this Covenant, and which shall then be pending, shall be reviewed for adherence to this Covenant, be prosecuted to judgment and execution in the name of the people of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, and/or the injured party; or be discharged. As soon as is practicable, the Chief Trustee, in cooperation with the Judiciary, shall pardon every prisoner who shall have been imprisoned for a victimless crime, and review the cases of those who, upon new evidence of sufficient weight, or upon convincing evidence of denial of due process of law, shall merit pardon as justice requires.
Section 5. Election of Trust officers. The first election for Chief Trustee, Deputy Trustee, and members of the legislature, shall be held as heretofore specified and on the anniversary each year thereafter. The election shall be conducted in the manner prescribed, and by the township officers designated as inspectors of elections, and the returns made as required, by the existing laws of the State of Alaska, if not otherwise provided for by this Covenant or the legislature there under: The election shall be conducted in the, manner prescribed, and by the township officers designated as inspectors of elections, and the returns made as required by the existing laws of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, or by this Covenant after such laws are enacted.
Section 6. Election System. Elections within Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, shall be conducted in accordance with the following processes: Election booths - the only devices that shall be allowed are those that produce hard copy ballots.
Section 7. Election Eligibility. All people eligible to vote, or who shall become eligible by election day, shall provide identification papers exhibiting substantially the same information required by the Secretary of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, as prescribed by the county jural assembly, to the township clerk prior to the first scheduled election. To do so one must produce two pieces of valid ID, or in the absence, sufficient information to ascertain one’s domicile. Once verified as domiciled in Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, the elector’s appellation and address shall be listed on a Master Electoral Roster.
Section 8. Election Process. Each elector may go to their Election Precinct and show their identification to the election official, who shall check for the Elector’s appellation on the Master Electoral Roster, and if it is there, the election official shall give the elector a ballot. To vote, the elector shall process the ballot via the election booth and return the ballot to the election officials.
Section 9. Precinct Ballot Tabulation.
A. When election is completed, the election officials shall tally the number of electors who turned out to vote on each, and every, page of the Master Electoral
B. The page totals shall be recorded and tabulated.
C. Then the ballots shall be counted and grouped in bundles of 100. The total number of ballots must equal the total number of those who showed up to vote as recorded on the Master Electoral Roster.
D. The totals for each candidate shall then be added together. If no ballot was cast for a candidate in a specific race then a mark shall be made in the column “No vote cast”. The total of the vote for each candidate, plus the total of “No votes cast”, must equal the total number of votes cast.
E. When completed, the bundles shall be given to a second group of vote counters, who again shall tally the vote and count the ballots to confirm the totals recorded by the first group of vote counters.
F. After the numbers have been confirmed, two election officials shall sign a statement certifying that the totals are true and correct to the best of their knowledge. Then they shall forward the totals to the County Election Officials.
Section 10. County Election Officials Duty
A. Each electoral precinct shall forward the verified totals to the county officer, who shall tabulate the Master Electoral Roster, and the totals for each candidate, plus “No votes cast”, Again, the totals of votes, plus “No votes cast,” must be equal to the number of voters who cast votes as reflected in the Master Electoral Rosters.
B. When completed, a second group of vote counters shall do the same, to verify the totals calculated by group one.
C. After the numbers have been confirmed, two election officials shall sign a statement certifying that the totals are true and correct to the best of their knowledge, and shall send their totals to Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, Election Officials.
D. County Election Officials shall announce local election results.
Section 11. Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, Election Officials Duty
A. Each county shall forward the verified totals to Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, election officials, who shall tabulate the Master Electoral Roster and the totals for each candidate. The total of votes, plus “No votes cast”, must be equal to the number of voters.
B. When completed, a second group of vote counters shall do the same to verify the totals calculated by group one.
C. After the numbers have been confirmed, two election officials shall sign a statement certifying that the totals are true and correct to the best of their knowledge.
D. Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, Election Officials announce election results.
Section 12. First meeting of the Legislature. The first meeting of the legislature shall be at the city of ________________, on the day prescribed by the Chief Trustee.
Section 13. County and township officers. All county or borough and township officers shall continue to hold their respective offices, unless removed by competent authority, until the County jural assembly shall, in conformity to the provisions of this Covenant, provide for the holding of elections to fill such offices respectively.
Section 14. Covenant submission to electors; time, return. This Covenant shall be submitted by the legislature on the first day of April two thousand and ____________ and if the same be ratified by the sovereign people of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, the same shall become the Covenant of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State. At the election, shall be written or printed the word "yes" and on those which are against the ratification of said Covenant, the word "no." And the returns of the votes on the question of ratification or rejection of said Covenant shall be made to the interim Chief Trustee and interim Chief Justice of Alaska, a Free and Independent nation=state.
Preamble: The study of history shows that documents using terms which are in common usage for the day, over time lose their precise meanings, and thus their intended purpose to preserve intent. The definitions of this Article are meant to preserve a common understanding among those who ratify this Covenant. These definitions show the fundamental difference between this Covenant and every other form of political structure. These definitions apply to this document for the purposes stated.
abode: Noun. The place to which one returns regularly to rest or sleep, and where one keeps private possessions.
accept: Verb. To take or receive what is offered with a consenting mind.
agent: Noun. One who acts on behalf of another by delegation of authority.
agency: Noun. A position or office, through and from which one exercises certain delegated powers. [Colloquially. Power of attorney; officer.]
Alaska: Noun. A physical place described by metes and bounds in this Covenant.
allegiance: Noun. The obligation or oath of fidelity to a king, government or state. Under English Common Law, every native or citizen (subject) owes allegiance to the lawful government under which he is born. This is natural or implied allegiance. By extension, conscience. In a Free and Independent nation=Nation=State, no man or woman owes allegiance to any king, government or state as a consequence of their birth upon the land, but only by consciously and voluntarily choosing an obligation or oath.
allodarii: Noun, Latin. The class of all owners of allodial lands within a nation.
allodial: Adjective, Latin. Owned by indigenous power. Freehold; free of rent or service. Holding absolute title. The opposite of feudal title.
allodian: Adjective. Another word for Allodial.
allodium: Noun. A man or woman’s own land, possessed of right, without owing rent or service to a superior. Held by inherent and indigenous power.
appear: Verb. To present oneself before a court.
appellation: Noun. The expression in words by which one is known; a common identifier without contemplation of, or recognizance of, a contract. [Appellation is opposed to the term, name, which means belonging to the realm of a Sovereign, as in free sovereign people, rather than that of a servant, for whom the word name is proper.]
arch: Noun, Latin. Rule to impose one’s will upon another who is not willing to cooperate.
arch of the covenant: Rule of law. By extension, rule of man. With regard to the Covenant of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, it is the confines constructed and expressed in this Covenant document, binding upon public servants, which are enforced by the people, individually through claims for damages, through their jural assemblies, through their Statesmen, and through their Trustees.
archy: Noun, Latin. Ruler.
anarchy: Noun, Latin. An-archy. A condition of having no ruler.
assess: Verb. To determine value. To ascertain the commodity, and measure quantity and quality. To equate the unquantifiable, as a house or an idea, with money, the value of which can be measured.
attorn: Verb, intransitive. Feudal law. To turn, or transfer homage and service from one lord to another; to render homage and service (to a lord). This is an act of feudatories, vassals, or tenants, upon the alienation of the estate. To transfer title of a feudal serf along with his personal possessions from one lord to another.
attorney: Noun. One who is appointed or admitted in the place of another, to manage matters in law. The word formerly signified anyone who did business for another; but its sense is now chiefly or wholly restricted to those people who act as substitutes for the parties concerned in prosecuting and de fending actions before courts of justice, or in transacting other business in which legal rights are involved. Under English Common Law and under de facto corporate law, an attorney is a member of the BAR (British Accreditation Registry) and holds a title of nobility under the Crown.
bailment: Noun. The delivery of property from one party to another, to be held in trust and returned after the purpose is accomplished for which the delivery was made. A constructive trust. See: Pledge.
bank: Noun. The place where a collection of money is deposited; a common repository of the money of people or of companies. Also, a house used for a bank.
bench: Noun. The seat where judges sit in court, the seat of justice.
bona fide: Noun. In good faith, honestly, without deceit or fraud.
bond: Noun. In law, an obligation or deed by which one binds him/herself, his/her heirs, executors, and administrators, to pay a certain sum, on or before a future day appointed. This is a single bond. Usually a condition is added, that if the obligor shall do a certain act, or pay a certain sum of money, on or before a time specified, the obligation shall be void; otherwise it shall remain in full force. If the condition is not performed, the bond becomes forfeited, and the obligor and his heirs are liable to pay the whole sum.
box: Noun. A framework which sets aside what is contained from what is outside it. In contracts, what is inside the box is considered a separate document. Verb. To confine.
chattel: Noun. Property which is animate. In modern usage, the word chattel comprehends all goods, movable or immovable, except such as have the nature of freehold. Chattels are real, if related to real estate, such as a leasehold. Or, chattels are personal and movable, such as animals, jewels, crops, furniture, etc.
citizen: Noun. In the general sense, a native or permanent resident in a city or country. In the United States, a person, native or naturalized, who has the privilege of exercising the elective franchise, or the qualifications which enable him to vote for rulers, and to purchase and hold real estate. Equivalent to the term subject, under civil/feudal law. One who is not free, but owing allegiance to a king, government or state.
civilian: Noun. One presumed to be learned in the civil law and bound thereby.
civil law: Noun. Policy of government over its agents. Rules imposed through collective authority, by constitution or statute, upon a class of individuals or a community. The form of law directing a society, or a subset within a society, subject to the dictates of a director, whether by a king or dictator, a group of representatives in a representative republic, or by the will of the majority in either a pure or representative democracy, such as communism. The rules of servitude, in greater or lesser degree, depending upon one’s ability to volunteer into or to extricate him/herself therefrom. The polar opposite of a free society. Civil law belongs in the realm of equity, as regulation acts to prevent an injury, and thus, civil law tends to prevent free movement, speech, expression, and activity. Hence, a bill of rights is necessary to specify what limitations can be imposed upon public servants, because no limitation can be imposed upon a free people; limitations must be self-imposed, because liabilities are not limited in a free society.
civil rights: Noun, plural. Claims founded upon legislative statutes under civil law.
civil suit: Noun. A claim under civil law. An action for the discharge of a duty or obligation, or to obtain proceeds from the discharge of the obligation of another. Civil law deals in agency, and the respective property, privileges and duties of agents of a republic. A claim of right to transfer property from one lord to another. See: Attorn, Attorney.
claim: Verb, transitive. 1. To call for; to ask or seek to obtain, by virtue of authority, right or supposed right; to challenge as a right; to demand as due; as, to claim a debt, to claim obedience, to respect. 2. To assert, or maintain as a right; as, he claims to be the best poet of the age. 3. To have a right or title to as the heir claims the estate by descent.
collective authority: There is no collective authority. All authority comes from the Almighty to Man, individually. In that respect, all men and woman are created with equal rights. There is no divine right of kings or other ruler, nor of any political collective. There is only individual authority which can be amplified as collective power.
collective power: Power exerted either in law or outside the law, amplified by numbers and tools.
common law: The sum of all those principles of equity, and implied obligations which by moral right are binding. The principle of balance; the due course of bringing claims and seeking remedies based upon reason, logic, and common sense; standards of conduct commonly known and almost universally accepted; the law as implied, but not expressed. Moral right. Those principles and rules of action of people in relation to others, their land, and their possessions, derived solely from usage and custom from memorable antiquity, as distinguished from law by the enactment of legislatures, which is the foundation for the Roman civil law, the modern civil law, the canon law, the feudal law, the Napoleonic law, and every other system of law. Foundations of common law: no actual injury, no crime. No intent, no crime.
compact: Noun. Agreement among two or more sovereigns to accomplish, or facilitate, a common goal or interest.
Covenant of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=state: An agreement entered into by indigenous power of the people inhabiting Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, to secure unalienable rights, and to bind public servants by pledge to certain fiduciary duties.
competent: Adjective. Possessed of all faculties. A jurist must be competent to serve.
contract: Noun. A meeting of two minds in which one party gives up a valuable consideration in the present in exchange for the other pledging a duty in the future. An enforceable agreement. Verb. To accept the terms of a trade which shall be carried out over time and is enforceable under conditions specified if there is no complete and adequate remedy at law for breach of agreement. Elements of a contract: two parties, free will choice, term, exchange of consideration or value.
contribute: Verb. 1. To add to a common supply. 2. To restore to a tribe or nation value removed by a non-member, or to voluntarily add to the wealth. 3. To pay a tax. One is required to contribute toward the use of something for which he has no common right. See: drive, tribe.
cooperate: Verb. 1. general usage: to join together in common cause joint effort. 2. Civil/feudal law: the duty of vassals / subjects to work together on behalf of their lord. 3. To use a machine, contrivance, or other property belonging to another.
corporation: Noun. 1. A fiction of law that creates a perpetual trust organization which is a subdivision of a political state, and which in a feud is given special privileges and immunities to confer a competitive advantage over vassals in order to maintain the feudal class structure. In a republic, a corporation is a tool designed to consolidate money and power in the Executive branch of the political state through economic power, and to convey such money and power to privileged benefactors. As such, corporations operate outside the law, except by sufferance of the governed. 2. As a matter of both law and equity: A corporation is a perpetual trust, charged by a political state with public funds (a debtor) to produce needful utilities (products) for the benefit of the people.
court: Noun. The depository of claims and titles; the seat of the sovereign. A forum for making claims, settling disputes, and disbursing remedies.
covenant: Noun. 1. A common law form of agreement, expressed, and/or implied by the relationships of the parties, in which one or more parties is obligated to perform a task and is liable for damages should he/she fail. 2. The name of a common law form of action which lies for damages for breach of a co venant. See: Covenant of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State.
crime: Noun. Engagement in an act which is intended to cause another an injury, with exceptions for self-defense, and the defense of others, or of property, within reasonable parameters.
custody: Noun. Right of possession. A keeping; a guarding; care, watch, inspections for keeping, preservation or security. This word has elements of castle, the primary sense of which is to separate, to drive off; hence to defend, to hold.
damage: Verb. To hurt or harm; to injure; to impair; to lessen the soundness, goodness or value or to cause a loss of property or infringement upon a right. Noun. The loss of property or infringement upon a right assessed in terms of money.
damages: Noun. The assessment of a loss or injury quantified in terms of money. The liability of a tort feasor, one who causes injury.
delegate: Noun. Plural delegates. A person appointed and sent by another with powers to transact business as his representative. In the United States, a person elected or appointed to represent a state or a district in Congress, or in a convention for forming or altering a constitution. Verb. To invest one with authority to act for another.
delegation: Noun. The act of putting or investing with authority to act for another. The appointment of a delegate. The allocation of certain powers in the absence of a sovereign, or on his behalf, which powers are retained by the sovereign and cannot be exceeded by the delegate. A delegate who exceeds his delegation of authority acts on his own and does not bind the principal to any terms in excess of that delegation.
democracy: Noun. The fictitious political position presented as rule by vote of a majority of citizens, through representation of delegates, and by power of attorney. Results in mob rule and then oligarchy. In each election cycle, a minority of citizens turn out to vote, and even a majority of a minority is still a minority. Thus, a minority can rule the majority in a representative democracy even if elections are bona fide, which they generally are not.
dictatorship: Noun. Rule by a figurehead positioned by an oligarchy.
discharge: Verb. 1. To free from claim or demand; to give an acquittance to, or a receipt in full, as to a debtor. “The creditor discharged his debtor.” 2. To free from an obligation: as to discharge a man from further duty or service; to discharge a surety. From Webster’s 1828 dictionary.
discriminate: Verb. 1. Freedom of conscience to discriminate right from wrong, and to segregate oneself from those who do not share one’s values is inherent in a free society. This private right cannot be delegated to public officials. 2. In law, to make a difference or distinction, as in the application of law, and the punishment of crimes. “The judge should discriminate between degrees of guilt.”
domicile: Noun. A place of permanent abode, either of an individual man or woman or family.
domiciled: Verb. Having established a permanent abode.
drive: Verb. 1. To transport persons or property for hire under contract for profit. 2. To be in actual physical control of a vehicle.
due process of law: The course of action whereby an aggrieved party can make a claim for damages against an offending party by stating with particularity the injury and affording the accused a fair opportunity to defend himself. The regular course through which the operation of law proceeds. See the Bill of Rights.
duty: Noun. That which a man or woman owes to another; that which a man or woman is bound, by natural, moral or legal obligation, to pay, do, or perform. Examples: Obedience, respect and kindness to parents are duties of children; fidelity to friends is a duty; reverence, obedience, and prayer to God are indispensable duties; the government and religious instruction of children are duties of parents which they cannot neglect without guilt.
elect: Verb, transitive. In government, to select or take for an office or employment; to choose from among a number; to select or show preference by vote or designation; as, to elect a president or governor.
elector: Noun. An inhabitant of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, who has signed the Jural Covenant form.
enemy: Noun. A foe; an adversary. A private enemy is one who hates another and wishes him injury or attempts to do him injury to gratify his own malice or ill will. A public enemy or foe, is one who belongs to a nation or party, at war with another. One who hates or dislikes, as an enemy to truth or falsehood.
English common law: The perversion of common law by merging its principles with feudal law and attaching the principle o f stare decisis. Thus, what were general principles of equity as a guide to jurors who were free to judge the law and facts in every case, English common law imposes precedents; particularly precedents made by judges. The English common law is another form of civil code. See: civil law.
equity: Noun. 1. Justice; right. In practice, equity is the impartial distribution of justice, or the doing that to another which the laws of God and man, and of reason, give him a right to claim. It is the treating of a man or woman according to justice and reason. 2. The determination of rights, or title interests, which are not specified, but are inferred from facts and principles of fairness. 3. A partial title interest in a thing.
fact: Noun. Anything done, or that comes to pass; an act; a deed; an effect produced or achieved; an event. Witnesses are introduced into court to prove a fact. Facts are stubborn things. To deny a fact knowingly is to lie. Information reasonably reliable as discerned from one's senses, acquired first-hand.
fact of law: The assertion of the existence of an agreement, which can be reasonably proven from the testimony of reliable sources, and the production of the signed document expressing the intents.
false flag: An intentional fraud, whereby a criminal act is committed under the flag, or under the appearance of an innocent party or state, to place blame, or discredit, or to achieve another political objective. Examples of false flag operations: The practice of English and French mercenaries taking American scalps, blaming it on the indigenous tribes. The attack on the Oklahoma Federal Building, blaming it on a Michigan militia. The International Trade Tower attack, blamed upon Osama Bin Laden and the Taliban, with intent to pass draconian national security legislation. The war on drugs, blamed upon privateers and third world countries, when agents of the federal government are in the very business of producing, importing, and distributing drugs.
fascism: Noun. An authoritarian form of government, characterized by extreme nationalism, militarism, anti-communism, favoritism towards large corporations that support the government, and restrictions on individual freedom.
fealty: Noun. Under the feudal system, fidelity and loyalty to one’s lord or duties. Faithfulness, loyalty.
federal: Adjective. A term used to express a league or compact between two or more states or nations in which each surrenders sovereignty to a superior state created by the union, which governs both.
fee: Noun. Primarily, in English law, a loan of land and estate in trust, granted by prince or lord, to be held by the gra ntee on condition of personal service, or other condition; and if the grantee or tenant failed to perform the conditions, the land reverted to the lord or donor, called the landlord. In the united States, an estate in fee or fee-simple is what is called in English law an allodial estate, an estate held by a man or woman in his/her own right, and descendible to the heirs in general.
feudal title: Title rights, or right to possession and enjoyment, of a feud. Such rights are conveyed by an attorney through a contract of indenture called a Quit Claim Deed, or a Warrantee deed to marketable title in the fee. Such title is forfeit if the one fails to perform one’s duties under the fealty.
feudum: Noun. Latin. 1. Land granted to be held as a benefice, in distinction from land granted to be held allodially. 2. An estate of inheritance; an interest in land descendible to heirs.
fiction: Noun. [L. fictio (-onis), from fingere, to form, mold, devise.] 1. the act of feigning, inventing, or imagining; as, the mere fiction of the mind. 2. in law, an assumption made of what is not literally true, for the purpose of passing more rapidly over those parts of the subject which are not disputed and arriving at the points really at issue. Synonyms: fabrication, falsehood, invention, un-truth, figment, story. Fiction is opposed to what is real; it may or may not be intended to deceive; a fabrication is a fiction wrought for the purpose of deceiving; a falsehood requires less invention, being merely a false statement.
fiduciary: Noun. One who holds a thing in trust, a trustee. A fiduciary must act in the best interest of person they are fiduciary for, even if contrary to the interest of the fiduciary.
flag: Noun. [of Danish or Scandinavian origin; D. vlag; Sw. flagg; Dan. flag, a flag.] 1. a piece of cloth or bunting, often attached to a staff, with definite colors and patterns, or symbolic devices, used as a national or state symbol, or to indicate membership in an organization, to signal, etc.; banner; standard; ensign. The Free and Independent Nation=State of Alaska will adopt a standard to reflect the return to de jure government status at an appropriate time.
fraud: Noun. Deceit; deception; trick; artifice by which the right or interest of another is injured; a stratagem intended to obtain some undue advantage; an attempt to gain or the obtaining of an advantage over another by imposition or immoral means, particularly deception in contracts, or bargain and sale, either by stating falsehoods, or suppressing truth.
free: Adjective. Being at liberty; not being under necessity or restraint, physical or moral; a word of general application to the bod y and the will or mind. In government, not enslaved; not in a state of vassalage or dependence; subject only to fixed laws, made by consent, and to the regular administration of such laws; not subject to the arbitrary will of a sovereign or lord; as a free nation or people. Verb. To remove from a thing any encumbrance or obstruction; to disengage from; to rid; to strip; to clear; to set at liberty; to rescue or release from slavery, captivity or confinement. To lose.
free and independent Nation=State: The people exercise supreme authority, individually, over their own affairs, privately, while delegating certain fiduciary duties to public servants to administer only property held in public trust for the benefit of all who inhabit the state. Thus, in a free and independent state, the people are not subject to the dictates of representatives, as they may be deemed to be in every other form of government. A free and independent state is the compilation of free people, public servants by consent, private land, public rights of way (roads, navigable waters, air, and parks), and both public and private utilities; where public laws regulate public ministers, and the people are free under God and common law.
grand jury: Any assembly of 27 Sovereigns, or fewer if an exigency exists, but not less than twelve, assembled to investigate crime, and sworn to judge impartially whether a crime has been committed and return to a prosecutor a true bill of indictment accusing a party of the crime. See: petit jury.
grant: Verb. 1. To admit as true what is not proved; to allow; to yield; to concede. 2. To give, to bestow or confer on without compensation, particularly in answer to prayer or request. 3. To transfer the title of a thing to another, for a good or valuable consideration; to convey by deed or writing.
habeas corpus: Literally, have the body, or the body of the crime (injury). 1. The right of the accused to be informed of the nature and cause of an arrest, to confront the injured party, and to examine him concerning the injury. 2. The privilege of another to request a public officer, who is holding someone under arrest, to bring forth the prisoner and answer to the lawfulness of the arrest. 3. Legal action through which a prisoner can be released from unlawful detention.
Hegelian dialectic: Thesis versus antithesis gives synthesis. This is the practice of presenting an idea or problem, and then presenting a false alternative, or several false alternatives, in order to move discussion in a predetermined direction away from true inquiry to accomplish a fraudulent objective. See: false flag. Examples of Hegelian dialectic: Republic v democracy = feudal state either way; as opposed to a free and independent state. Republican v Democrat = rule by legislature either way; as opposed to operation of law under common law. Private corporations v public corporations = fascism either way, since all corporations are created under license of the state as opposed to private business and companies. Civil v criminal = feudal law either way as opposed to common law. War v peace = federalism as opposed to free nations living in harmony. Peace banner v war flag/ fringed v not fringed flag = Symbol of a feud, authority under one sovereign either way as opposed to flying no colors under the [United Nations Organization]. British spelling: [Organization is used by the UNO, as opposed to organisation.]
honor: Verb. To revere; to respect; to treat with deference and submission and perform relative duties to. In commerce, to accept and pay when due. Noun. 1. The esteem due or paid to worth; high estimation. 2. Dignity; exalted rank or place; distinction. 3. Reverence; veneration; or any act by which reverence and submission are expressed, as worship paid to the Supreme Being. 4. Reputation; good name. 5. True nobleness of mind; dignified respect for character, springing from probity, principle or moral rectitude.
human rights: Privileges and immunities which can be either conferred or rescinded as prescribed by law. Rights derived from man as opposed to natural or unalienable rights. More particularly, rights conferred by the Declaration of Human Rights, an attachment to the [United Nations Charter], which is a framework for a world fiefdom.
implied contract: An obligation to maintain relative balance in society. It is predicated upon a number of principles, two of which are: 1. Reasonable expectations derived from the circumstances, and 2. the principle that one may not greatly enrich him/herself at the expense of another. Thus, while the offer of a small gift implies no obligation to balance accounts, the offer of a great gift has attachments implied. To place an order for the delivery of a good or service implies a contract to pay for it, though the specific terms have not been expressed.
immunity: Noun. A particular privilege; having no liability. No court shall take cognizance of an action in law for damages arising out of a delegation of authority, with certain exceptions. A delegate acting within his delegation of authority is immune from suit for damages resultant thereby except as a result of negligence. A judge acting within his delegated powers by all the litigants is immune from suit, except for abuse of discretion, or upon an allegation of corruption. Jurors are immune from suit from parties coming before them except for breach of oath, and likewise, juries are immune from governmental action.
incompetent: Adjective. Wanting adequate powers of mind or suitable facilities; as an incompetent judge. Infancy, derangement, want of learning or dotage may render one incompetent to fill an office or transact business. One who retains an attorney creates the presumption of incompetence. See: attorney, attorn, feudal, serf, in propria persona.
indictment: Noun. A written accusation or formal charge of a crime or misdemeanor, preferred by a grand jury under oath to a c ourt, carrying the weight of a public bond.
infamous: Adjective. Of ill report, having a reputation of the worst kind; publicly branded with odium for vice or guilt; base; scandalous; notoriously vile; as an infamous liar; an infamous rake or gambler. Odious; detestable; held in abhorrence; that which renders one infamous; as an infamous vice. Branded with infamy by conviction of a crime.
infamous crime: Treason; theft in value of over one troy ounce of fine gold, whether by fraud or by violence; premeditated murder; rape by violent means; (perjury) false witness in which the damages are in excess of the value of one troy ounce of fine gold, or results in the false arrest of an innocent victim; (false imprisonment and kidnapping) the unlawful arrest and holding of someone for an unreasonable time before bringing him or her before a public minister to determine the lawfulness of the arrest; the deliberate chilling, or suspending, the right of habeas corpus; and the breach of public trust or duty, with intent to cause injury to another, which is the proximate cause of the loss of life or limb, or where damages to property are above the value of one troy ounce of fine gold.
inhabit: Verb. To be physically present in or to dwell in; to occupy as a place of settlement; to be settled in an area.
inhabitant: Noun. In common law, a dweller; one who dwells or who is settled in a place, or who has a fixed abode, as distinguished from an occasional lodger or visitor; the inhabitants of a town, city or state. One who has a settlement in a town, city or parish. In civil law, the conditions or qualifications which constitute a person an inhabitant of a town or parish, so as to subject the town or parish to support him, if a pauper, are defined by the statutes of different governments or states. Also, in the civil law, inhabitant and domicile have been used synonymously, and domicile and residence have been, but are not synonymous in that a residence does not always belong to the inhabitant, i.e., a renter. A resident may, or may not, be domiciled, in that a traveler may take up temporary residence in a motel for any length of time without intent to make it a permanent abode, while a renter may take up a residence intending to make it reasonably permanent. Generally, in the civil law, claiming to have a domicile or residence, or claiming to be a resident, is viewed as an acceptance of the jurisdiction. One is presumed to be a resident of the forum of the contract, and therefore subject to its jurisdiction.
in propria persona: Latin. In proper person. Acting as one’s own attorney. Cliché: “He who acts as his own attorney has a fool for a client. See: Attorney, proper, propriety, person, incompetent.
interest: Noun. One of two elements of title to a thing, the first being possession (9/10 the law), and the second being a right to possess, also known as interest. When possession of a thing is relinquished, or separated, as in a loan, the owner of it, who had first title (priori title) loses possession, but retains an interest in the thing, which under the principle of equity is called a right of recovery if not expressed on paper, which if expressed on paper would be called a right in law. Such right is more simply called a tax. See: tax, usury.
judge: Noun. The fiduciary to which property rights have been conveyed into trust (escrow) for the settlement of a dispute between two or more parties, after which time the title and property is disbursed. Verb. To apply the principles of law, or equity, to a dispute of facts where an injury is claimed, and to determine the respective rights of the parties. See: jury.
judgment: Noun. The solution reached by applying the principles of law and equity to a factual dispute.
jural assembly: a group of persons gathered together to perform the function of oversight of their elected officials.
jure: Pertaining to rights relative to law and equity. By law; by right; in right; as, jure civilis, by the civil law; jure gentium, by the law of nations; jure representations, by right of representation; jure uxoris, in right of a wife.
jurist: Noun. One who understands fundamentals of law and equity and is skilled in the application of those principles to factual disputes. See: jury, judge.
jurisdiction: Noun. From Latin, juris, and diction. Right to say. Power to declare rights.
jury: Noun. A number of men and women, selected in the manner prescribed by law, empaneled and sworn to inquire into and try any matter of fact, and to declare the truth on the evidence given them in the case. Grand juries consist usually of 27 men and women, at least, and are summoned to try matters alleged in indictments. Petit juries, consisting usually of 12 men and women, attend courts to try matters of fact in civil cases, and to decide both the law and fact in criminal prosecutions. The decision of a petit jury is called a verdict.
jury pool: Members of the community who form a jural society consisting of jurists to establish justice within a community for the purpose of filling positions on either a grand or petit jury. Pool from which statesmen, delegates and public officials are nominated and elected.
justice of the peace: Public minister charged with the duty of resolving disputes peacefully. A jurist under bond to th e people.
kneel: Verb. A symbol recognizing a position of homage and fealty, similar to a bow in expression of servitude.
kneel before the bench: Symbol for a pledge of homage, and/or, a surrender of sovereignty.
knowledge: Noun. A clear and certain perception of that which exists, or of truth and fact; the perception of the connection and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy, of our ideas. We can have no knowledge of that which does not exist. God has a perfect knowledge of all his works. Human knowledge is very limited and is mostly gained by observations and experience. Learning; illumination of mind. Skill; acquaintance with any fact or person; cognizance; notice; information; power of knowing.
law: 1. Noun. A rule, particularly an established or permanent rule, prescribed by the supreme power of a state to its subjects, for regulating their actions, particularly their social actions. Laws are imperative or mandatory, commanding what shall be done; prohibitory, restraining from what is to be forborn; or permissive, declaring what may be done without incurring penalty. The laws which enjoin the duties of piety and morality are prescribed by God and found in the Scriptures.
lawful: Adjective. Agreeable to the law; any activity undertaken with reasonable care and not intended to cause another injury.
law of the land: 1. Law as it relates to chattels and fiduciary trustees in possession of, or overseeing, the land on behalf of the owner / owners. 2. Law of the realm.
lawyer: Noun. One knowledgeable in the principles of law and equity. A jurist.
legal: Adjective. Within the scope of a delegation of authority (permitted by law). Antonym: Illegal: an act outside the scope of a delegation of authority. See: attorney.
legal tender: That which a creditor cannot refuse in payment for a debt.
legislature: Noun. Body of persons to make, change or enact, or repeal laws, and in this instance the entire body of electors of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State.
license: Noun. Permission to do that which would otherwise be illegal, a tort, or a trespass without such license. As opposed to a natural right.
minister: Noun. 1. One who advocates for, and actively promotes, a certain interest or philosophy. 2. One bound to a course o f law; a fiduciary; an agent; a servant.
monarchy: Noun, Latin. 1. Rule of one. 2. The fictitious political arrangement where one individual appears to rule a nation by divine right of kings. No such rule is possible since it requires an organized oligarchy of public ministers. In a feudal society, such oligarchy is the round table of nobles who enjoy franchise to privilege and immunity. 3. A vassalage under a supreme lord, or oligarchy of deities. See: republic, dictatorship.
money: Noun. Specie coin. A specified weight and purity of precious metal. Traditionally, gold and silver coin.
name: Noun. From the Latin form, nome, meaning debtor. The word identifier associated with a debtor, or trustee / bailee who is bound to a legal duty. One element in the identity of a person, others of which are date and place of birth. The title associated with a serf, vassal, or tenant in a feudal relationship. See: appellation.
nation: Noun. The people who inhabit a particular land mass, joined by blood, culture, customs, common cause or covenant.
national: Adjective. Of the nation.
national socialism: A republic founded upon the principle of social obligation to the state. See: feud, feudalism, oligarchy, monarchy.
oath: Noun. A pledge of fealty. A grant of general jurisdiction, even to determine the truth of a matter. An oath must be voluntarily given, or it carries no weight. “One competent would not surrender all sovereignty by oath.” An affirmation is another form of the same expression of intent.
odious: Adjective. Not bona fide. Entered into with dishonorable or fraudulent intent. See: bona fide.
odious debt: The principle that a fiduciary under delegation of authority to conduct business on behalf of a principal party, who incurs a debt allegedly on behalf of the principal, from which the proceeds of such loan the principal party doesn’t receive value, or equal value; then, the debt is an odious debt and the obligation transfers to the fiduciary. In the case of odious debt, the fiduciary is guilty of the crimes of fraud, and uttering and publishing a debt instrument with fraudulent intent.
of: Preposition. When used in relation to a fiction of law, it means, “Proceeding from, or owing allegiance to,” as in Wasilla, of the State of Alaska.
offer: Noun. trade: the terms of the verb form, offer. Verb. To present terms of a desired contract for the other party to accept or refuse.
oligarchy: Noun. A form of government in which the supreme power is placed in a few hands; a type of aristocracy. Anarchy reverts to an oligarchy quickly; a monarchy is actually an oligarchy with a figurehead. A dictatorship is also an oligarchy since a dictator rules through his favorites.
operate: Verb. To conduct the business of another. To act on behalf of another. See: cooperate.
operation of law: Under common law: 1. The due course of the natural law. 2. Acting on behalf of the Almighty as a surrogate. 3. Balance over time. Antithesis: Rule of law. Under rule of law, force is used to achieve compliance. Each use of force creates a greater imbalance until great polarity is achieved. Examples: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. Honor your agreements and harm no one. The right to a remedy for every injury. Freedom from compulsion and restraint in the normal course of life. It includes the reciprocals of: self-control, and the duty to compensate others for damages one might cause; and further, to surrender certain rights, which by one’s actions he has deemed without value, by impeding the rights of another. By operation of law, these are voluntary. When a society no longer lives by these principles, then compulsory forms of law come into use.
opinion: Noun. The judgment which the mind forms of any proposition, statement, theory or event, the truth or falsehood of which is supported by a degree of evidence that renders it probable but does not produce absolute knowledge or certainty.
own: Verb. To have the legal or rightful title to; having rights, exclusive of all others.
owner: Noun. One who has exclusive rights to a thing. One claiming a private property right where there are no adverse claimants. The rightful proprietor, one who has the legal or rightful title, whether he is the possessor or not.
passport: Noun. 1. A written license from the governing authority of the area, granting permission or safe conduct for one to pass through its territories, or to pass from one country to another, or to navigate a particular sea without hindrance or molestation. 2. A license for importing or exporting contraband goods or movables without paying usual duties. See: pledge, vassal, bailment, transport.
pay: Verb. To deliver specie in exchange for the cancellation of an obligation. To extinguish a debt. To exchange money for a thing of equal value.
peace: Noun. In a general sense, a state of quiet or tranquility; freedom from disturbance or agitation; applicable to society, to peop le, or to the temper of the mind. Freedom from war with a foreign nation; public quiet.
person: Noun. An individual human being consisting of body and soul. We apply the word to living beings only, possessed of a rational nature; the body when dead is not called a person. It is applied alike to a man, woman or child. In law, an artificial person. A fiction of law through which a man or woman contracts. A facade. A debtor. A fiction created by agreement, such as a trust or corporation.
petit jury: Trial jury, in all infamous cases, comprised of 12 jurists of the locale in which the crime was committed. In all other cases, the usual number is 12, but under some circumstances may be reduced to no less than 6.
pledge: Noun. 1. To deposit or leave in one’s possession something which is to secure the repayment of money borrowed, or the performance of some act. This word is applied chiefly to the depositing of goods or personal property. When real estate is given as security, we usually apply the word mortgage. 2. To give as a warrant or security; as to pledge one’s word or honor; to pledge one’s veracity.
pledge of allegiance: To give as a power, that authorizes an expressed promise by natural right, the duty of faithfulness. Every citizen owes allegiance to the lawful government under which he is born. Derived from Webster’s dictionary, 1828.
“I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation under God, with liberty and justice for all.”
This translates to: I by natural right give my expressed promise and word of honor to be faithful to the free and independent states of the Republic for the united States of America and the lawful government of my state and nation that ensures liberty and justice for all.
police: Noun. 1. The government of a city or town; the administration of the laws and regulations of a city or incorporated town or borough. The word is applied also to the government of all towns in New England which are made corporations by a general statute, for certain purposes. 2. Agents charged with the duty of attornment, and of keeping the peace. 3. Noun. Latin, from polic. Agent of a foreign sovereign occupying certain land under arrest where belligerents resist a revenue order. See: feudum, attorn, attorney, revenue, venue, war, and warrant.
police action: The serving of a warrant, and the seizure of the body or property of a belligerent, facilitated by an attorney, within a feud, by whatever means that becomes necessary. See: War, Attorney.
police powers: Powers delegated to an agent from the court of the sovereign, charging him with a duty to serve the warrants, and execut e the writs and orders of the court by the use of threat, duress, coercion, or force. Presumably, such tactics may only be used against a belligerent upon whom a lawful warrant has been served. See: Feudum. In practice: an unlawful occupation.
political power: The right to assemble, and to make mutual agreements.
power: Noun. 1. The ability to do work. The force which moves an object from a position of relative pressure to that of relative vacuum, or from resistance to compliance. 2. The application of pressure against a resistance.
preamble: Noun. A writing that goes before the body of a document to explain the intents and purposes for which the document is written.
private: Adjective. Unconnected with others; belonging to or concerning a single man, woman or entity only. A realm in which there is no public interest, and which, therefore, is not subject to taxation or regulation. Polar opposite of public. The realm of the [free] sovereign.
probable cause: Generally associated with the allegation of crime, where there are observed facts by one or more firsthand witness, which would lead one to reasonably conclude that a crime had occurred.
proper: Adjective. Peculiar; naturally or essentially belonging to a living being or thing; not common. Particularly suited to. Correct; just. Law. Having to do with property. The expectation of a certain duty, particularly the duty of a vassal to his lord. Adjective. Common usage: acceptable.
property: Noun. The extension of labor and intellect manifested in the form of possessions to which one claims title. Under feudal law, otherwise known as the law of the land, vassals, and chattel are appurtenances to the land, and therefore the property of the lord.
proprietor: Noun. 1. One with a legal right to a thing. 2. The holder of property in fee simple title. 3. One with the right to custody of a thing whether in possession of it or not. 4. In common usage within a fiefdom: An owner.
propriety: Noun. 1. Property; peculiar or exclusive right of possession; ownership. The perfect equivalent to property. By canon of conduct, an attorney “in all things, must not create the appearance of impropriety.” Cancel the double negatives and you have the command, “In all things an attorney mu st create the appearance of property.”
public: Noun. Property held in common, regulated through the public trust. As relates to people, it includes all private people, not regulated, who traverse or may traverse public property, and therefore are expected to adhere to certain minimum standards of conduct when in the public domain to prevent injury. Adjective: The polar opposite of private.
public domain: As relates to property, it is the sum of all property which is not claimed privately, or which cannot be so segregated, such as air, navigable waters, common roads, and pooled water, gas, and petroleum reserves. Example: older books are in public domain for public use. As relates to rights, it is the reasonable expectation of peace and harmony, which no individual has a right to breach, and to freedom from restraint and fraud, and to the bill of rights that follow this section. In this bill of rights, all public domain property within the geographical boundary of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, is the substance of the expressed trust call the Covenant of Alaska.
ratify: Verb. To confirm; to establish; to settle; to approve and sanction; to make valid as to ratify an agreement or treaty. See: vote, pledge, fealty.
real: Adjective. 1. Actually being or existing; not fictitious or imaginary; as a description of real life. True; genuine; not artificial, counterfeit or factitious; true, genuine; not assumed. 2. In law, pertaining to things fixed, permanent or immovable, as to lands and tenements; as real property, or in civil law, real estate, as opposed to personal or movable property.
real property: Land, and generally whatever is erected or growing on it. In civil law, assets consisting in real estate, or leaseholds and tenements.
recognize: Verb. 1. The affirmation of a contract. 2. To give witness to something twice or more experienced. 3. To enter an obligation of record before a proper tribunal.
recognizance: Noun. 1. Acknowledgment of people or things; avowal; profession; as the recognizance of Christians, by which they avow their belief in their religion. 2. In law, an obligation of record which a man enters into before some court of record or magistrate duly authorized, with condition to do some particular act, as to appear at the assizes (criminal courts), to keep the peace or pay a debt. This recognizance differs from a bond, as it does not create a new debt, but it is the acknowledgment of a former debt or record. This is witnessed by the record only, and not by the party's seal. There is also a recognizance in the nature of a statute staple, acknowledged before either of the chief justices or their substitutes, the mayor of the staple at Westminster and the recorder of London, which is to be enrolled and certified into chancery. 3. The verdict of a jury impaneled upon assize.
Redeem: Verb. [L. redimo; red, re, and emo, to obtain or purchase.] 1. To purchase back; to ransom; to liberate or rescue from captivity or bondage, or from any obligation or liability to suffer or to be forfeited, by paying an equivalent; as, to redeem prisoners or captured goods; to redeem a pledge. 2. To repurchase what has been sold; to regain possession of a thing alienated, by repaying the value of it to the possessor. If a man [shall] sell a dwelling house in a walled city, then he may redeem it within a whole year after it is sold. Leviticus 25. 3. To rescue; to recover; to deliver from. 4. In law, to recall an estate, or to obtain the right to re-enter upon a mortgaged estate by paying to the mortgagee his principal, interest, and expenses or costs. 5. In commerce, to purchase or pay the value in specie, of any promissory note, bill or other evidence of debt, given by the state, by a company or corporation, or by an individual. The credit of a state, a banking company or individuals, is good when they can redeem all their stock, notes or bills, at par. To redeem time, is to use more diligence in the improvement of it; to be diligent and active in duty and preparation. Ephesians 5.
redeemer: Noun. One who redeems or ransoms. One who places himself in the legal position of another.
refuse: Verb. 1. To deny a request, demand, invitation or command; to decline to do or grant what is solicited, claimed or commanded. 2. To decline to accept what is offered; as, to refuse an office; to refuse an offer. 3. To reject; as, to refuse instruction or reproof. Civil / feudal law. To dishonor a duty or obligation.
religion: Noun. [Latin, religio, from religo, to bind anew; re and ligo, to bind. This word seems originally to have signified an oath or vow to the gods, or the obligation of such an oath or vow, which was held very sacred by the Romans.] 1. Religion, in its most comprehensive sense, includes a belief in the being and perfection of God, in the revelation of his will to man, in man's obligation to obey his commands, in a state of reward and punishment, and in man's accountableness to God; and also true godliness or piety of life, with the practice of all moral duties. It therefore comprehends theology, as a system of doctrines or principles, as well as practical piety; for the practice of moral duties without a belief in a divine lawgiver, and without reference to his will or commands, is not religion. 2. Religion, as distinct from theology, is godliness or real piety in practice, consisting in the performance of all known duties to God and our fellow men, in obedience to divine command, or from love to God and his law. James 1. 3. Religion, as distinct from virtue, or morality, consists in the performance of the duties we owe directly to God, from a principle of obedience to his will. Hence, we often speak of religion and virtue, as different branches of one system, or the duties of the first and second tables of the law. Let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion. 4. Any system of faith and worship. In this sense, religion comprehends the belief and wo rship of pagans and Muslims, as well as of Christians; any religion consisting in the belief of a superior power or powers governing the world, and in the worship of such power or powers. Thus, we speak of the religion of the Turks, of the Hindus, of the Indians, etc. as well as of the Christian religion. We speak of false religion, as well as of true religion. 5. The rites of religion; in the plural.
religious: Adjective. 1. Pertaining or relating to religion; as a religious society; a religious sect; a religious place; religious subjects. 2. Pious; godly; loving and reverencing the Supreme Being and obeying his precepts; as a religious man. 3. Devoted to the practice of religion; as a religious life. 4. Teaching religion; containing religious subjects or the doctrines and precepts of religion, or the discussion of topics of religion; as a religious book. 5. Exact; strict such as religion requires; as a religious observance of vows or promises. 6. Engaged by vows to a monastic life; as a religious order or fraternity. 7. Appropriated to the performance of sacred or religious duties; as a religious house.
rent: Verb. To occupy space temporarily.
renter. Noun. One who resides or dwells, by privilege, not right, in a place for some time. One living in a temporary abode.
republic: Noun. From Latin, res publica, the public thing. All things which are made public; rights and claims held in common for the benefit of all. 1. A commonwealth; a state in which the exercise of the delegated sovereign power is lodged in representatives elected by the people. In modern usage, it differs from a democracy or democratic state, in which the people exercise the powers of sovereignty in person. Yet the democracies of Greece are often called republics. 2. Common interest; the public. A traditional republic is defined as: a state or nation in which the supreme power rests in all the citizens entitled to vote (the electorate) and is exercised by representatives elected, directly or indirectly, by them and are responsible to them (the electorate) to develop, preserve, and conserve the property of the state. In practice, de facto: Title to all property and rights are vested in the State, which presumably secures them, and allocates them for the benefit of all according to vote of representatives, who grant privileges to corporations which consolidates property and power into the hands of those who enjoy privilege and immunity.
reside: Verb. To dwell permanently or for a length of time; to have a settled abode for a time. The peculiar uses of this word are to be noticed. When the word is applied to the natives of a state, or others who dwell in it as permanent citizens, we use it only with reference to the part of a city or country in which a man dwells. We do not say generally that Englishmen reside in England, but a particular citizen resides in London or York, or at such a house in such a street, in the Strand, etc. When the word is applied to strangers or travelers, we do not say, a man resides in an inn for a night, but he resided in London or Oxford a month, or a year or p art of his life. A man lodges, stays, remains, abides, for a day or very short time, but reside implies a longer time, though not definite. In law – to reside in the forum of the contract.
resident: Adjective. Having the privilege, granted by another, of dwelling or having an abode in a place for a continuance of time, but not definite as a minister resident at the court of St. James. “A or B is now resident in South America.” Not domiciled. Noun. 1. One who resides or dwells, by privilege, not right, in a place for some time. A or B is now a resident in London. 2. A public minister who resides at a foreign court. It is usually applied to ministers of a rank inferior to that of ambassadors.
revenue: Noun. 1. In a general sense, the annual rents, profits, interest or issues of any species of property, real or personal. When used of people, it is equivalent to income. In modern usage, income is applied more generally to the rents and profits of people, and revenue to those of the state. In the latter case, revenue is 2. The annual produce of taxes, excise, customs, duties, rents, etc. which a nation or state collects and receives into the treasury for public use. 3. Return; reward; as a rich revenue of praise.
right: Noun. 1. Conformity to the will of God, or to his law, the perfect standard of truth and justice. In the literal sense, right is a straight line of conduct, and wrong a crooked one. Right therefore is rectitude or straightness, and perfect rectitude is found only in an infinite Being and his will. 2. Conformity to human laws, or to other human standard of truth, propriety or justice. When laws are definite, right and wrong are easily ascertained and understood. In arts, there are some principles and rules which determine what is right. In many things indifferent, or left without positive law, we are to judge what is right by fitness or propriety, by custom, civility or other circumstances. 3. Justice; that which is due or proper, as to do right to every man. 4. Freedom from error; conformity with truth or fact. 5. Just claim; legal title; ownership; the legal power of exclusive possession and enjoyment. In hereditary monarchies, a right to the throne vests in the heir on the decease of the king. A deed vests the right of possession in the purchaser of land. Right and possession are very different things. We often have occasion to demand and sue for rights not in possession. 6. Just claim by courtesy, customs, or the principles of civility and decorum. Every man has a right to civil treatment. The magistrate has a right to respect. 7. Just claim by sovereignty; prerogative. God, as the author of all things, has a right to govern and dispose of them at his pleasure. 8. That which justly belongs to one. “Born free, he sought his right.” 9. Property; interest. A subject in his prince may claim a right. 10. Just claim; immunity; privilege. All men and women have a right to the secure enjoyment of life, personal safety, liberty and property. “We deem the right of trial by jury invaluable, particularly in the case of crimes.” Rights are natural, civil, political, religious, personal, and public. 11. Authority; legal power. “We have no right to disturb others in the enjoyment of their religious opinions.” Claims may be founded upon the provisions of this covenant.
remedy: Noun. 1. That which counteracts an evil of any kind; with for, to or against; usually with for. “Civil government is the remedy for the evils of natural liberty.” “What remedy can be provided for extravagance in dress?” “The man who shall invent an effectual remedy for intemperance, will deserve everything from his fellow men.” 2. That which cures uneasiness. “Our griefs how swift, our remedies how slow.” 3. That which repairs loss or disaster; reparation. “In the death of a man there is no remedy.” 4. The solution to a problem. Verb. To facilitate the balancing of accounts and the restoration of peace.
remedy at law: Action through due process of law to obtain an agreement as to amount of damages and money to be paid to compensate for an injury. This is extrajudicial, out of the court of a third party, but is within the two courts of the sovereigns by face to face negotiations, or through agents and statesmen.
remedy in law: Action to obtain money to satisfy damages within the court of an intercessory to fulfill the law which has been agreed to by judgment entered into at law by the disputing parties. See: equity.
resolution: Noun. 1.The act or process of unraveling or disentangling perplexities, or of dissipating obscurity in moral subjects; as the resolution of difficult questions in moral science. 2. Determination of a cause in a court of justice; as a judicial resolution. [But this word is now seldom used to express the decision of a judicial tribunal. We use judgment, decision or decree.] 3. The determination or decision of a legislative body, or a formal proposition offered for legislative determination. We call that a resolution, which is reduced to form and offered to a legislative house for consideration, and we call it a resolution when adopted. We say, a member moved certain resolutions; the house proceeded to consider the resolutions offered; they adopted or rejected the resolutions. 4. An expression of will or intent; a specified remedy to solve a problem not rising to the level of law. The solution to a problem.
rule: Verb: 1. To govern; to control the will and actions of others, either by arbitrary power and authority, or by established laws. “The emperors of the east rule their subjects without the restraints of a constitution.” “In limited governments, men are ruled by known laws.” “If a man know not how to rule his own house, how shall he take care of the church of God?” 1 Timothy 3. 2. To govern the movements of things; to conduct; to manage; to control. That God rules the world he has created, is a fundamental article of belief. 3. To manage; to conduct, in almost any manner. 4. To settle as by a rule. “That is a ruled case with the schoolmen.” 5. To mark with lines by a ruler; as, to rule a blank book. 6. To establish by decree or decision; to determine; as a court. Verb, intransitive. To have power or command; to exercise s upreme authority.
Rule: Noun [L. regula, from rego, to govern, that is, to stretch, strain or make straight.] 1. Government; sway; empire; control; supreme command or authority. “A wise servant shall have rule over a son that causeth shame.” Proverbs 17. “And his stern rule the groaning land obey'd.” 2. That which is established as a principle, standard or directory; that by which any thing is to be adjusted or regulated, or to which it is to be conformed; that which is settled by authority or custom for guidance and direction. Thus a statute or law is a rule of civil conduct; a canon is a rule of ecclesiastical government; the precept or command of a father is a rule of action or obedience to children; precedents in law are rules of decision to judges; maxims and customs furnish rules for regulating our social opinions and manners. The laws of God are rules for directing us in life, paramount to all others. “A rule which you do not apply, is no rule at all.”
rule of law: 1. Enforcement of the terms of a contract or compact. Enforcement is a consequence of a mistake, dishonor, or dispute, which has not been resolved voluntarily, and therefore leads to conflict. See: war, peace, operation of law.
segregate: Verb. To set apart, based upon a perceived difference.
serf: Noun. In feudal polity, a serf is a member of a class of individuals bound to labor and duties at the will of his lord. A serf differs from a slave in that he is bound to his native soil (as chattel are), rather than to a specific master. See: republic, monarchy, feud, attorney.
sheriff: Noun. From Anglo Saxon law. An officer in each county, to whom is entrusted the execution of the laws. The sheriff is elected by people of the county. The sheriff, by himself or his deputies, executes civil and criminal process throughout the county, has charge of the jail and prisoners, attends courts and keeps the peace. The chief administrative officer within a county, whose authority exceeds that of the Chief Trustee with respect to his commission by the county to protect the people, their rights, and private property; and is subservient to the Chief Trustee with respect to public property held in trust.
sign: Verb. 1. To mark with characters or one's name. To sign a paper, note, deed, etc. is to write one's name at the foot, or underneath the declaration, promise, covenant, grant, etc., by which the person makes it his own act. To sign one's name, is to write or subscribe it on the paper. Signing does not now include sealing. 2. To signify; to represent typically. [Not in use.] 3. To mark. 4.To give witness to consent or agreement to the terms and conditions contained within the four corners of a document, which implies one read it, understands it, and voluntarily agrees to be bound by it.
signature: N oun. A mark of proof. Used as the physical evidence of voluntary consent. See: Sign
sovereign: Noun. Supreme in power; possessing supreme dominion, a supreme lord or ruler; one who possesses the highest authority without control. Some earthly princes, kings and emperors are sovereigns in their dominions. In practice: A man or woman having reached the age of majority who has not encumbered himself by contract of indenture, nor diminished his rights by conviction of felonious crime. Sovereignty can be diminished, but not extinguished. Thus, the issue of sovereignty is relative to the parties and the claims. A sovereign is the one who has the final say as it relates to a particular matter, and as such a sovereign must be competent, and must be possessed of all his faculties.
sovereignty: Noun. The right to exercise all powers other than engage in crime. The right to say. The power to claim and declare rights. Having jurisdiction.
specie: Noun. Gold or silver coin used as a circulating medium in commerce; money. Adjective. Gold or silver, as in: specie coin.
stand: Noun. The values one places upon a foundation. The sum of one’s rights and property. Upon the order, “All rise,” to stand symbolizes the surrender of all rights and property. The converse principle is, “I won’t stand for that,” which is an expression of sovereign right, discriminating against the assertion of a presumed duty of fealty. Also, to stand on a promise, which expression means to hold one to honor his word, the word being the foundation upon which one stands.
State: Noun. The whole body of people united under one government, whatever may be the form of the government. 1. Verb. To give advice.
statesman: Noun. One who gives advice, and who may advocate for another in a controversy. Plural, statesmen. 1. A man versed in the arts of government; usually, one eminent for political abilities; a politician. 2. A small landholder. 3. One employed in public affairs. 4. A jurist who has been elected to a position in the House of Statesmen of the Assembly, with a duty to protect the rights and interests of the people.
statute: Noun. An act of legislature of a state that extends its binding force to all residing in the state, as distinguished from an act which extends only to an individual or company; an act of the legislature commanding or prohibiting something; a positive law. Statutes are distinguished from common law. Common law owes its binding force to the principles of justice, to the long use and the consent of a nation. Statutes owe their binding force to a positive command or declaration of a governing body.
State of Alaska: Proper noun. The fiction of law created by constitution to act as a perpetual lord over the people, and as a v assalage to its lord, the United States, another vassalage.
subject: Noun. One who owes allegiance to a sovereign and is governed by that sovereign’s laws. Verb: To bring under the power or dominion of.
suffrage: Noun. 1. A vote; a voice given in deciding a controverted question, or in the choice of a man for an office or trust. “Nothing can be more grateful to a good man than to be elevated to office by the unbiased suffrages of free enlightened citizens.” “Lactantius and St. Austin confirm by their suffrages the observation made by heathen writers.” 2. United voice of persons in public prayer. 3. Aid; assistance; a Latinism. [Not in use.] In Law: The grant of privilege, where no right exists. License without fealty.
sufferance: Noun. 1. Patience; moderation; a bearing with patience. 2. Toleration; permission; allowance; negative consent by not forbidding or hindering. “In process of time, sometimes by sufferance, sometimes by special leave and favor, they erected to themselves oratories.” “In their beginning, they are weak and wan, but soon through sufferance grow to fearful end.” An estate at sufferance, in law, is where a person comes into possession of land by lawful title, but keeps it after the title ceases, without positive leave of the owner. In Law: Passively allowing someone to do what he has no right to do, for which the active form would be license. Acceptance of a tort, without claiming damages and seeking recourse, and imposing a liability. Limiting liability.
suit: Noun. The foundation of a claim, which includes all the evidence, and all the facts from whatever sources and witnesses.
suit at the common law: A claim for money damages for injury in tort or breach of contract, from sovereign to sovereign without an intercessor, which includes witnesses, as opposed to a naked claim.
suit in equity: Application for a special remedy where there is no complete and adequate remedy available at the Common Law. An application for the determination and declaration of rights which have not been previously specified, but may be inferred from the facts and circumstances. See: Implied contract.
suit in law: A claim for money arising out of a judgment arrived at the common law, in which the debtor refuses to honor the judgment. It includes the witnesses to due process of law employed, and to every fact asserted in support of a claim. See: equity, suit in equity.
surrogate: Noun. One in whom the title to certain property or rights is placed in trust for administration on behalf of the principal t itle holder, not by transfer, but by delegation. A judge. See: Court, Bank.
tax: Noun. 1. A rate or sum of money assessed on the person or property of a citizen by government, for the use of the nation or state. Taxes, in free governments, are usually laid upon the property of citizens according to their income, or the value of their estates. Tax is a term of general import, including almost every species of imposition on persons or property for supplying the public treasury, as tolls, tribute, subsidy, excise, impost, or customs. But more generally, tax is limited to the sum laid upon polls, lands, houses, horses, cattle, professions and occupations. So we speak of a land tax, a window tax, a tax on carriages, etc. Taxes are annual or perpetual. 2. A sum imposed on the persons and property of citizens to defray the expenses of a corporation, society, parish or company; as a city tax, a county tax, a parish tax, and the like. So a private association may lay a tax on its members for the use of the association. 3. That which is imposed; a burden. The attention that he gives to public business is a heavy tax on his time. 4. Charge; censure. 5. Task.
taxation: Noun. A taxing; the act of laying a tax, or of imposing taxes on the subjects of a state by government, or on the members of a corporation or company by the proper authority. Taxation is probably the most difficult subject of legislation. 1. Tax; sum imposed. [Little used.] “He daily such taxations did exact.” 2. Charge; accusation. [Little used.] 3. The act of taxing or assessing a bill of cost.
tender: Noun. In law, an offer, either of money to pay a debt, or of service to be performed, in order to save a penalty or forfeiture which would be incurred by non-payment or non-performance; as the tender of rent due, or of the amount of a note or bond with interest. To constitute a legal tender, such money must be offered as the law prescribes; the offer of bank notes is not a legal tender. So also the tender must be at the time and place where the rent or debt ought to be paid, and it must be to the full amount due. There is also a tender of issue in pleadings, a tender of an oath, etc. To make a bona fide offer.
the common law: Not to be confused with common law, which is the adjective common followed by the noun law. The common law is the article “the” followed by the compound noun common-law. Thus, common law is comprised of general principles of fairness, while the common law is a specific body of law as recorded by court decisions which are taken as precedents. Common law is principles of fairness and equity. The common law is a codification of court decisions. In contradistinction with the civil law, the common law allows only the right to a claim for restoration after injury by demanding money damages, while an appeal to an officer of the civil law may provide a remedy before the injury. See also: Common law, civil law.
the Covenant of Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State: The name of the public trust indebted to the people to secure the blessings of liberty and to administer public property under this covenant. A fiction of law, but a tool to exercise the administration of law. An abstract describing Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, as represented in points of longitude and latitude within a grid on a map by perimeter and area enclosed, which confines the administrators of the public trust to a certain geographic jurisdiction upon the north American continent. [Under the United States circa 2010, a vassalage.]
the law of the land: 1. A specified body of law concerning the use and disposition of chattels, minerals, and other resources as it relates to tangible property of a realm appurtenant to a specifically described land mass over which jurisdiction is claimed on behalf of one or more lords. 2. A constitution.
title: Noun. 1. Title is composed of two elements, the first of which is possession, and the second of which is right of possession. When the two are joined, one has perfected title, or, he has simple title to the property. The evidence of a right in property creates a presumptive title, but is not actual title. 2. Title includes the foundation upon which a claim is made, and the possession of the thing, or the exercise of the right claimed. 3. The right of ownership.
to bring suit: To publish a claim, with proofs, against someone in a manner designed to give him actual notice of the nature and cause from which the claim arises, demanding an answer to the allegation of injury, or another action for which the defendant has a right. To serve actual notice of a claim of injury, and provide the due process of law toward a solution.
tort: Noun. 1. In law, any wrong or injury. Torts are injuries done to the person or property of another, as trespass, assault and battery, defamation and the like. 2. Mischief; calamity. [Except in the legal sense above explained, it is obsolete.] An act which causes an injury other than breach of contract.
trade: Verb. To barter, or to buy and sell; to deal in the exchange, purchase or sale of goods, wares and merchandise, or anything else; to traffic; to carry on commerce as a business. “Thus American merchants trade with the English at London and at Liverpool; they trade with the French at Havre and Bordeaux, and they trade with Canada. The country shopkeepers trade with London merchants. Our banks are permitted to trade in bills of exchange.” 1. To buy and sell or exchange property, in a single instance. Thus we say, man treats with another for his farm, but cannot trade with him. “A traded with B for a horse or a number of sheep.” 2. To act merely for money. “How did you dare To trade and traffic with Macbeth?” 3. To have a trade wind. “They on the trading flood ply toward the pole. [Unusual.]
transport: Verb. 1. To carry or convey from one place to another, either by means of beasts or vehicles on land, or by ships in water, or by balloons in air; as, to transport the baggage of an army; to transport goods from one country to another; to transport troops over a river. To convey from one vassalage to another. 2. Common usage. To travel.
travel: Verb. 1. The act of locomotion by foot or contrivance. 2. Journey; a passing or riding from place to place.
traverse: Verb. To cross; to lay in a cross direction. “The parts should be often traversed or crossed by the flowing of the folds.” 1. To cross by way of opposition; to thwart; to obstruct. “Frog thought to traverse this new project.” 2. To wander over; to cross in traveling; as, to traverse the habitable globe. To move from one place to another. “What seas you travers'd, and what fields you fought.” 3. To pass over and view; to survey carefully. “My purpose is to traverse the nature, principles and properties of this detestable vice, ingratitude.” 4. To turn and point in any direction; as, to traverse a cannon. 5. In law pleadings, to deny what the opposite party has alleged. When the plaintiff or defendant advances new matter, he avers it to be true, and traverses what the other party has affirmed. So to traverse an indictment or an office, is to deny it.
treason: Noun. To act on behalf of a foreign court at odds with one’s duties to the people, with intent to undermine the peace, security, and safety of the inhabitants of a nation, or subject the inhabitants to bondage and rule. Deliberate debasement of the official money of a nation. The egregious breach of a public trust causing great injury to the people.
tribe: Noun. A group of people set apart from another. May be nomadic or fixed, operating under a covenant and/or common law, and not the law of the land. An unincorporated nation.
tribunal: Noun. An assembly of members of a tribe. Such assembly was often to settle disputes or formulate custom. A judicial body of a tribe.
tribune: Noun. An officer or representative chosen by the people traditionally with the power to veto to protect them from the oppression of the patricians or nobles, and to defend their liberties against any attempts that might be made upon them by the senate and consuls. See: chief trustee.
tribute: Noun. A rent owed by a foreigner to a tribe or a tribesman for the use of private or tribe property. Traditionally: homage due in fealty to a lord. A tax.
trust: Noun. A fictional entity arising out of an agreement between a principal party, or several principals, binding delegate-agents t o certain duties with confidence the delegates will adhere faithfully to their promises. Verb: confidence that an agent, entrusted with possession of the property of a principal party, will honor his agreements and not exceed his delegation of authority.
unalienable rights: Rights which cannot be alienated, or contracted away. Such rights may be waived for a time by an incompetent, creating the presumption of a separation, but can always be reclaimed.
understand: Verb. To give foundation to that which has no foundation. To stand under a claim and give it foundation. Common usage. To comprehend, or recognize, a fact or principle; or to assert a meeting of the minds. To have just and adequate ideas of; to comprehend; to know; as, to understand a problem in Euclid; to understand a proposition or a declaration.
usury: Noun. The practice of lending money and demanding more returned than was loaned. See: sovereign, fraud, odious. Law as it relates to usury: The practice is deceptive in that it expands credit where no substance exists, the credit being the claimed interest. The return due the lender is the specie loaned, the principal. No additional specie is created by the loan. Once the principal is returned to the lender, there is no separated title interest in the specie belonging to the lender which is in the hands of the borrower. Thus, usury works a fraud. The credit represented by the fictitious interest demanded as a condition of the loan expands the currency base of the community, thereby causing inflation. Demand notes circulating with specie coins on par waters down the specie in direct proportion with the demand notes representing a fictional interest in specie, rather than actual specie coin good for delivery. This fictional money then competes with actual money and debases the circulating currency until there is no specie left to deliver in exchange for notes. Then, a bankruptcy occurs. The community enters a vassalage, and he who has the gold and silver becomes lord of a fiefdom. Since commerce must occur for people to live, a voucher system is created in which the lord has title to all the money and all the property, and all the people; and the people transfer possessory interests (custody) from one sub vassalage to another through officials of the lord called attorneys. Thus, wherever there is a practice of usury, there is either a lord of a fiefdom, or there soon will be, and wherever there is a fiefdom, it was obtained through fraud.
vassal: Noun. Feudal law. 1. A feudatory; a tenant; one who holds land of a superior, and who vows fidelity and homage to him. A rear vassal is one who holds of a lord who is himself a vassal. 2. A subject; a dependent. 3. A servant. 4. In common language, a bondman; a political slave. “We will never be the vassals of a foreign prince.” See: subject, citizen, person.
vessel: Noun. 1. A container. 2. Every device designed to float on water used to transport property in commerce or war.
vest: Verb. To accrue to; to be fixed; to give a fixed and indefeasible right; to grant. To come or descend to; to be fixed; to take effect, as a title or right. Upon the death of the ancestor, the estate, or the right to the estate, vests in the heir at law.
vested: Adjective. Granted; fixed; absolute.
venue: Noun. 1. Common usage. Place. 2. Law. The district from which a jury comes to try a question of fact, usually the county where the crime is alleged to have been committed.
vote: Verb. To express or signify the mind, will or preference, in electing men to office, or in passing laws, regulations and the like, or in deciding on any proposition in which one has an interest with others. In elections, men are bound to vote for the best men to fill offices, according to their best knowledge and belief. “To vote for a duelist, is to assist in the prostration of justice, and indirectly to encourage the crime.”
war: Noun. Short form of warrant. A command to seize property not in possession of a political state, or a feudal lord, in which the state, or lord, has an equitable title claim, in which the party, or state, in possession refuses to release the property. Verb. The serving of a warrant upon a belligerent and seizing by force. War typically is the domain of feudal lords, in which the prime minister, president, or king enjoys privilege, as does his officers, and the vassals/citizens/subjects sacrifice their lives in service to their lord. As such, there are rules of engagement. One privilege of the game is that you do not kill the king, and you give his officers preferential treatment. You also suspend certain requirements under law, such as, under a declaration of war it is “okay” to kill members of the opposite side, even though they are acting under orders with no specific evil intent themselves. See: police action.
Warrant: Noun. 1. An act, instrument or obligation, by which one person authorizes another to do something which he has not otherwise a right to do; an act or instrument investing one with a right or authority, and thus securing him from loss or damage; a word of general application. 2. A precept authorizing an officer to seize an offender and bring him to justice. A general warrant to seize suspected persons is illegal. 3. Authority; power that authorizes or justifies any act. Those who preach the gospel have the warrant of Scripture. “We have the warrant of natural right to do what the laws do not forbid; but civility and propriety may sometimes render things improper, which natural right warrants.” 4. A commission that gives authority, or that justifies. 5. A voucher; that which attests or proves. 6. Right; legality. “There’s warrant in that theft which steals itself when there is no mercy left.” 7. A writing which authorizes a person to receive money or other thing. Warrant of attorn ey, that by which a man appoints another to act in his name, and warrants his transaction. Land warrant, is an instrument or writing issued by the proper officer, authorizing a person to locate or take up a tract of new or uncultivated land. Search warrant: a precept authorizing a person to enter houses, shops, etc. to search for a criminal, for stolen or smuggled goods. Warrant officer: an officer holding a warrant from the navy board, such as the master, surgeon, purser, etc. of a ship.
Verification and ratification
In assembly on Saturday the fifth day of November in the year of our Lord two thousand and twenty, A.D., we, the following signatories, declare that we are domiciled on Alaska, a Free and Independent Nation=State, that we have read the preceding document, that we have discussed the provisions thereof and voiced any concerns, that we understand it to the best of our abilities, and that we assent to the provisions set forth therein. Be it so enacted, as amended circa 2020:
Signatories attached hereto:
Second Signatory page below
Second Signatory page continued :